Choosing a course is one of the most important decisions you'll ever make! View our courses and see what our students and lecturers have to say about the courses you are interested in at the links below.
Each year more than 4,000 choose NUI Galway as their University of choice. Find out what life at NUI Galway is all about here.
About NUI Galway
About NUI Galway
Since 1845, NUI Galway has been sharing the highest quality teaching and research with Ireland and the world. Find out what makes our University so special – from our distinguished history to the latest news and campus developments.
Colleges & Schools
Colleges & Schools
NUI Galway has earned international recognition as a research-led university with a commitment to top quality teaching across a range of key areas of expertise.
- Business & Industry
- Alumni, Friends & Supporters
At NUI Galway, we believe that the best learning takes place when you apply what you learn in a real world context. That's why many of our courses include work placements or community projects.
First Year BA (Joint-Honours)
Visit NUI Galway's Courses Page for information on how to apply, entry requirements and assessment.
Welcome to First Year History
Structure of First Year History
In first year, students taking History will examine social, political and cultural developments in Ireland and Europe from the early Middle Ages up to World War One. Students will take four modules in total, two in each semester. While one module in each semester consists of lectures on aspects of these time periods, the other provides a more interactive learning experience in a small group setting. As well as learning about what happened in the past, students are introduced to the techniques used by professional historians - the evaluation of contemporay sources, the balancing of different interpretations of the past, and the construction of one's own view of historical developments. Students will receive close attention in tutorial groups of 15 students, which meet weekly to discuss the lecture topics.
In First Year History students do four core modules:
Semester 1: HI1103 Europe & Ireland 1789-1918 5 ECTS
Section A: Ireland 1789-1918 Dr. Caitriona Clear
Section B: Europe 1789-1918 Dr. Gearóid Barry
Semester 2: HI1104 Europe: From Medieval to Modern 5 ECTS
Section A: The Problem of Saint Patrick Prof. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín
Section B: Reformation & General Crisis, 1517-1715 Dr. Pádraig Lenihan
Semester 1: HI1101 Skills for Historians I (5 ECTS) & Semester 2: HI1102 Skills for Historians II (5 ECTS)
In these modules, students engage with primary source material and develop a critical awareness of historical scholarship with a view to developing their own writing and presentation skills. Students will learn how to locate different types of historical sources, to analyse them critically, and to present their analyses in written and oral form.
Ireland 1789-1918 Dr. Caitriona Clear
Bookended by revolutionary decades, this course pays attention to all the economic, social and political developments in Ireland from 1789 to 1922. Intensifying administration (schools,police), growing institutionalisation, emigration, family change, modernising living standards and the relationships between poverty and prosperity are examined against a backdrop of the major political developments including growing nationalism, land agitation and unionism.
Europe 1789-1918 Dr. Gearóid Barry
Nineteenth-century Europe's story is about struggles of ideas: books and films such as Les Misérables remind us of yearnings for citizenship and equality inspired by the French Revolution. However, wars and old empires often persisted and nationalism produced European states, by 1900, were dividing into armed camps. This age of factories, the telegraph and railways shrank the globe but also expanded European colonialism overseas and class inequalities at home that in time changed politics.
The Problem of Saint Patrick Prof. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín
'The Problem of Saint Patrick': How did it come about that the man we celebrate on March 17th every year was transformed from a humble, vulnerable, tortured soul into a mythic and legendary figure striding fifth-century Ireland like a colossus? In these lecturers, students will explore how the texts written by Patrick himself have been manipulated and distorted by successive generations of historians and propagandists, from the earliest period down to the present day. A truly heroic person has been diminished as a travesty of his true self.
Reformation & General Crisis, 1517-1715 Dr. Pádraig Lenihan
'Reformation and General Crisis, 1517-1715' is a set of survey lectures which will explain the nature of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations and explore conflicts such as the devasting Thirty Years War that arose from religious rivalries overlaid with dynastic and interstate competition. The 'general crisis' paradigm will link apparently separate phenomena such as climate change, economic recession, peasant and aristocratic revolts, war, famine and population collapse. Carlos V and Louis XIV, the 'Sun King', dominate either end of this epoch: their problems and policies will be examined.
Dr. Caitriona Clear, Room 414, Tower 1, Floor 2.
Welcome to Second Year History
- 2nd Year History Handbook 2017-18
- Modules running 2017-18
- 2BA & Connects Timetable 2017-18
- Module Descriptions 2017-18
- Head of 2nd Year
Structure of Second Year
Second-Year History course has no core modules: you are free to choose themes, countries and topics which interest you. There are, however, some limits to your choices, and these are outlined below.
This web-page is mainly concerned with students taking Joint Honours History (i.e. History with one other Arts subject). There are different requirements for those taking Single Honours History - such students should check the BA History (Single Honours) 2nd Year webpage.
- You must take modules totalling 15 ECTS each semester, making 30 ECTS for the year.
- You must take one colloquium module (10 ECTS) and four lecture modules (5 ECTS each).
- You must take at least one lecture module from each of our three time periods: medieval, early modern and modern.
The Colloquia involve small-group teaching, with the classes capped at about 25 students. The Colloquia are assessed by a mixture of continuous assessment (including mandatory attendance at class, and an oral presentation), and a mini-dissertation (4,000 words) due after the end of semester. The Colloquium Modules are worth 10ECTS, twice as much as each Lecture Module. Colloquia choice and allocation takes place at the beginning of term.
You take THREE Lecture Modules in one semester, and ONE Lecture Module (which must be assessed by examination) PLUS a COLLOQUIUM in the other semester. Which semester is which depends on your choice of Colloquium module. You need to fill out a Colloquium Sign-Up sheet during the first week of first semester, indicating your preference.
Over the year as a whole, you must take a chronological range of Lecture Modules. This is to ensure that you study a broad range of periods and topics. (If you want to specialise in a particular period, you will have to wait until Final Year!)
BA CONNECT Module Choices
BA CONNECT students do 10 ECTS of their BA CONNECT specialty and 25 ECTS in each of their two B.A. subjects in 2nd year. The structure for module choice for B.A. Connect students is slightly different, but it ensures that B.A. Connect students do not miss any aspect or area of the 2nd year History course.
All 2nd year History students are required to do a Colloquium, an Ancient/Medieval module, an Early Modern module and a Modern module.
For BA CONNECT students, this means that you will do your colloquium (10 ECTS) in one semester and your three lecture modules in the other. So BA Connect Student choices are as follows:
If you have any problem with the structure above due to clashes with your other subject, please contact Dr. Niall Ó Ciosáin at firstname.lastname@example.org
Colloquia are assessed with marks for participation, presentation and extended essay. Attendance is compulsory and non-attendance for more than 3 sessions without sufficient excuse will affect the mark.
For a description of the module, click on the module number.
COLLOQUIA (10 ECTS You take one Colloquium over the year)
- HI295 The American Civil War: Causes & Consequences - Enrico Dal Lago
- HI2121: Studies in Modern History I: Irish America in the 19th Century - Cathal Smith
- HI2117: Studies in Early Modern History I: Social and Cultural change in 17th century Ireland - Mark Empey
- HI166 Ireland in the 1950s - Tomas Finn
LECTURE MODULES (5 ECTS)
You take 4 lecture modules, 1 in the semester in which you are doing your Colloquium and three (1 from each panel: Medieval, Early Modern and Modern) in the other semester)
- HI229 Medieval Europe c. 5th - 9th century - Christopher Doyle
- HI2110 Making Ireland English, 1580-1665 - Pádraig Lenihan
- HI267 Reformation Europe - Alison Forrestal
- HI492 The Family in Modern Ireland ; Sarah-Anne Buckley
- HI2123 Life and Death in Victorian Britain - Laurence Marley
COLLOQUIA (10 ECTS You take one Colloquium over the year)
- HI494 British Social Movements from 1945-1990 - Sarah-Anne Buckley
- HI2103 Monarchy & Society in Early Century France - Alison Forrestal
- HI2113 The Making & Breaking of Britain in the 20th Century - Tomás Finn
- HI572 Irish Ideologies and Activists, 1905-16 - TBC
- HI465 European Encounteres with the Mongols - Kimberly LoPrete
LECTURE MODULES (5 ECTS you take 4 lecture modules, 1 in the semester in which you are doing your Colloquium and three (1 from each panel: Medieval, Early Modern and Modern) in the other semester)
- HI262 Medieval Europe c. 1050-1250 - Kimberly LoPrete
- HI211 Early Medieval Ireland, C. 5th-9th century - Máirín Mc Carron
- HI204 18th Century Ireland, 1691-1801 - Pádraig Lenihan
- HI459 The Tudors: Religion, State & Society - Mark Empey
- HI2102 The Modern United States, 1865-2008 - Enrico Dal Lago
- HI170 Europe, 1918-1999 - Gearóid Barry
COLLOQUIA (10 ects)
HI166: Ireland in the 1950s
Dr Tomás Finn
This colloquium examines perceptions of the 1950s in Ireland as a lost decade. It considers the economic stagnation from which the country suffered but also looks at the emergence of a culture of inquiry and many of the policies that shaped contemporary Ireland.
HI295: The American Civil War: Causes and Developments
Dr Enrico Dal Lago
This colloquium will introduce students to the American Civil War, which between 1861 and 1865 caused more than 600,000 dead, destroyed the lives of an entire generation, and led to the emancipation of 4,000,000 African American slaves. Through the analysis of key documents –ranging from South Carolina’s Declaration of the Causes of Secession to Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation – and through the reading of writings by key historians, students will familiarize with the main issues of contention in the American Civil War and with the different scholarly interpretations of them.
Michael Perman, eds., Major problems in the Civil War and Reconstruction (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2nd edition 1998).
HI2121 Studies in Modern History.I: The African-American Civil Rights Movements, 1954-1968
Dr Ronán De Bhaldraithe
This colloquium explores the African-American civil rights movements in the period 1954-1968. It examines the changes within the movements during this period as well as the differences between the movements’ focus in the Southern and Northern states, from voter registration drives in the rural South to the Black Panther’s “Ten Point Program” in California. The course will emphasise the role of people such as Thurgood Marshall, Martin Luther King, Jr., Stokely Carmichael, and Malcolm X., while also highlighting the stories of lesser known individuals in regional movements. Using primary sources such as poems, songs, legal documents and pamphlets as well as a wide range of secondary sources, students will discuss the main social, cultural, political and economic problems facing African-Americans in the United States in this period.
HI2117 Studies in Early Modern History.I: Social & Cultural Changes in 17th-century Ireland
Dr Mark Empey
Note: you cannot take both HI2110 and this module.
Approaches to seventeenth-century Irish history for the most part are analysed along political and religious lines. The period has been characterised as ‘the war of religions’ and ‘an age of disruption’. However, such an outlook is limited in its assessment because it overlooks social and cultural aspects that were hugely significant in the development of Irish society.
This course, therefore, examines the problem of social and cultural change through the lens of governance. At the heart of this will be exploring the views and ideas of various groups within the Irish polity, specifically how society and government was to be organised and how those ideas related to, and conflicted with, each other. The course will be structured by devoting a week to each decade of the seventeenth century. Each decade contains its own problems that students will examine and analyse. Lectures will establish a narrative framework while seminars will discuss selected texts in greater detail.
Raymond Gillespie, Seventeenth-century Ireland (Dublin, 2006)
Nicholas Canny, Making Ireland British, 1580-1650 (Oxford, 2001)
Pádraig Lenihan, Consolidating conquest: IReland 1603-1727 (Harlow, 2008)
HI229 Medieval Europe, c. 5th - 9th century
Dr Christopher Doyle
This module comprises a survey of the history, politics, culture, and society of Western Europe in the EarlyMiddle Ages (from c. AD 400 to c. AD 800), and traces the transition from Late Antiquity to the so-called'barbarian' kingdoms of France, Germany, Spain and Italy in the period sometimes called the 'Dark Ages'.The lectures cover such themes as law and institutions in Late Roman Gaul and in the barbarian kingdoms;politics and society; literature and culture; the role of the church and its evolution, and the general questionof how 'The First Europe' came into existence. Students are introduced to some of the original documentaryand archaeological material used by historians of the period.
HI2110 Making Ireland English, 1580-1665 Early Modern
Dr Pádraig Lenihan
(Note: you cannot take both HI2117 (colloquium) and this module.)
This is a survey lecture module designed to introduce students to debates and interpretations surrounding the formative political, economic, military and social events and themes of early modern Ireland. The survey takes as its organizing grand narrative the multifaceted conflicts between a centralizing Tudor and Stuart state and local or native elites be they Gaelic, Old English, Irish, or ‘English of Ireland’.
HI267: Reformation Europe Early Modern
Dr Alison Forrestal
At the beginning of the sixteenth century, western Europeans shared a common religious identity as members of the catholic church. By 1563, European society had altered irrevocably, with the unity wrought by religious affiliation replaced by an array of conflicting churches and sects. This period, commonly known as the Reformation, was an era of unprecedented change in European history, with enormous and enduring significance for the political and cultural development of Europe. ‘Reformation Europe’ will trace the inauspicious beginnings of the Reformation in 1517, when the scholarly monk Martin Luther defied pope and emperor by refusing to retract his criticisms of catholic doctrines and devotions, such as indulgences. It will examine the origins of the protest, asking what longer term political, cultural and social trends contributed to its outbreak, and transformed an isolated intellectual debate into a revolution. It will also trace the rapid growth of support for dissent and reform, followed by the radicalisation and fragmentation of the new movement as it spread across the German lands, and into England and Scotland, Switzerland and France. The political and social implications of the Reformation were thrashed out in revolts and wars, such as the Peasants’ Revolt (1524), and the French civil wars (1562), which will form case studies in the module.
HI2123: Life and Death in Victorian Britain Modern
Dr Laurence Marley
This lecture module provides a survey of the social and cultural history of Britain in the long nineteenth century. This was an age that transformed everyday life through the unprecedented and celebrated expansion of trade, transport, communications and empire. But it was also one that witnessed grinding child labour, draconian workhouses, pathologies and neuroses associated with rail travel and scientific innovation, poor sanitation and deadly diseases, and the Victorian 'invention' of death.
HI492 The Family in Modern Ireland
Dr Sarah-Anne Buckley
This course aims to introduce students to the history of family and childhood in Ireland from the pre-famine period to the present. Thematic rather than chronological, it will look at key moments in Irish history in which definitions of family, childhood and parental rights have been re-negotiated due to social, political and economic factors. Although primarily concerned with the twentieth century, the situation in the nineteenth century will also be addressed in order to establish changes and developments. After an initial introduction to theoretical approaches to the history of family and childhood, the impact of the famine on both will be briefly addressed, particularly with regard to changes in family structure and land distribution. In both the nineteenth and twentieth century, the importance of emigration, poverty, class and gender to the experience of family life and childhood, as well as the differences between urban and rural experiences will be addressed. From the late nineteenth-century, the role of organisations such as the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) in shaping family life will be examined, as will the affect of the 1908 Children’s Act on parental rights. In Independent Ireland, the role of the Catholic Church and State in defining acceptable family structures through education, welfare provision and legislation will be looked at. Under Article 41.1 of the 1937 Irish constitution (Bunreacht na hÉireann),the Irish State promised to ‘protect the Family’ by recognizing it as having ‘inalienable and imprescriptible rights, antecedent and superior to all positive law’. This course will assess whether this was the case, by looking at the experience of family life for working-class, middle-class and upper-class families. Over the last 15 years, cases of abuse in industrial schools, Magdalen laundries, orphanages and numerous other institutions run by the State and churches have emerged. This course will look at the situation for unmarried mothers and ‘illegitimate’ children, the use of institutionalisation by the State to protect its traditional structures, the treatment of domestic violence and the importance of second-wave feminism and entry to the EEC for women and children in Ireland. Finally, it will examine the contemporary family structure in Ireland, as well as representations of family and childhood in film and memoir
COLLOQUIA (10 ects)
HI2103: Monarchy and Society in Early Seventeenth-Century France
Dr Alison Forrestal
The beginning of the seventeenth century heralded a new era for the kingdom of France: after four decades of civil war a new dynasty of Bourbon kings took power, and wielded it until the French Revolution. This colloquium examines the reigns of Louis XVI’s predecessors, Louis XIII and his son Louis XIV (the ‘Sun King of Versailles’) from 1610 to 1661. It focuses on the political and social challenges involved in asserting the ‘absolute’ authority of the new regime, and examines the claim that the political and social roots of the French Revolution lay in these periods of rule. Knowledge of the French language is not required, since readings (documents and secondary sources) on the workings of the royal court, popular revolts, noble faction and rebellion, etc. will be provided in translation.
HI2113: Making and Breaking of Britain in the Twentieth Century
Dr Tomás Finn
This colloquium asks what it means to be British. The twentieth century ended with the opening of the National Assembly of Wales and a parliament in Scotland. These were in many ways unexpected and unlikely events. It was Scotland’s first parliament for 300 years and the first in Wales for almost 600 years. This colloquium considers the factors that led to their establishment and may in turn lead to the break-up of Britain, along with the ties that continue to unite the country. It examines not just the question of national identity especially for the Scots and Welsh, but also the phenomenon of English nationalism. Topics include the impact of two world wars, the decline of the British Empire, economic challenges, the European Union and the political awakening of both women and the working classes. By considering the long and short term factors that led to devolution, this colloquium helps us to understand what it is to be English, Welsh and Scottish within a British context.
HI572 Irish Ideologies and Activists, 1905-16
This colloquium focuses on prominent Irish nationalist, republican, unionist, feminist and socialist figures of the period. It examines their writings, relating them to their Irish and international contexts. It considers their use of the mosquito press, demonstrations, agitprop and other means of conveying their message and assesses their impact.
HI494 British Social Movements from 1945-1990
Dr Sarah-Anne Buckley
From 1945, Britain's political and cultural landscape has been changed by social movements campaigning on issues of gender, race, disability, sexuality, the environment, and peace. This colloquium will address these movements, while also assessing the extent to which they resulted in political, social and economic change. From early attempts to decriminalize gay sex to the movement against globalization, this course will look at a range of topics previously neglected by historians of post-war Britain. In doing so, it will question not only the radicalism of individual movements, but how they fragmented in the 1980s and the extent to which they affected the political agenda.
HI465 European Encounters with the Mongols
Dr Kimberly Lo Prete
This Colloquium examines Europeans’ encounters with the Mongols from the initial shock and outrageous rumours after the Mongols’ destructive attacks on central European cities in the 1240s to the studied attempts--through ‘fact-finding’ and other diplomatic embassies--both to acquire accurate knowledge of the Mongols’ way of life and to forge alliances with some of them against the Muslim powers of the middle east. Emphasis will be on the considered discussion of contemporary reports, most notably those by the papal envoy John of 'Planus Carpinus' and by William of Rubruck, sent by the French king Louis IX, in attempts to see how knowledge of the Mongols and central Asia affected Europeans’ views of themselves and their wider world.
LECTURES (5 ects)
HI262: Medieval Europe c. 1050-1250 Medieval
Dr Kimberly LoPrete
This survey lecture module introduces students to key actors, events and ideas that shaped culture, politics and religious affairs in the central middle ages—a period that saw great experimentation and expansion followed by the development of legal and administrative structures to centralise monarchs’ powers in both ‘church’ and ‘states’. Topics treated in lectures include how lordship shaped knightly, clerical, peasant and burgess communities; papal reform and Christian kingship; the Norman impact in England and south Italy; ‘reconquista’ and the first crusade; new religious movements, both orthodox and heterodox; the rise of universities. Lectures are complemented by the discussion in tutorials of primary sources devoted to such themes as medieval warfare; the relations of kings and prelates; the charismatic religious figures Peter Waldo and Francis of Assisi; the purpose and reach of inquisitors; and legal compilations like the canons of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), Magna Carta (1215) and the Constitutions of Melfi (1231).
HI211: Medieval Ireland 5th-9th century Medieval
Dr Máirín McCarron
This lecture module comprises a survey of the history, politics, culture, literature and society of Ireland in the Early Middle Ages (from c. AD 400 to c. AD 800). It traces the transition from a so-called 'tribal' society to one in which 'dynastic' politics are the norm, and explains how that change is reflected in society. It ends with an assessment of the Viking impact in Ireland. The lectures cover such themes as Early Irish (Brehon) law and institutions; politics and society; the origins of Irish artistic and literary culture; the beginnings of Christianity and the later evolution of the Irish Church; the Irish abroad, and the Vikings. Students are introduced to some of the original documentary material used by historians.
HI204 18th Century Ireland, 1691-1801
This course is a survey of Irish history in the period from the articles of Limerick to the Act of Union. It aims to introduce students to salient developments in the spheres of government, society and the economy while paying particular attention to the identities of the three main religious communities and the ways in which these evolved during the eighteenth century. Topics that will be explored include the relationship between the Irish political nation and British government; the significance of Catholic Jacobitism; and the political dimension of Protestant Dissent. The course also aims to acquaint students with current historiographical debates on such issues as Penal legislation; Anglo-Irish patriotism; politicisation in the 1790s; and the applicability of ‘colonial’ and/or ‘ancien régime’ models in the context of eighteenth-century Ireland.
HI459 The Tudors: Religion, State & Society Early Modern
Dr Mark Empey
When Elizabeth I died in 1603 the Tudor state had overseen a remarkable change since Henry VII assumed the throne in 1485. Far from the medieval structures inherited by Henry the government under Elizabeth was noticeably more stable and powerful. Control over Ireland, Wales and northern England had been secured with the establishment of regional administrations, the head of the Church was no longer the pope but instead it was the monarch of England who assumed the title of 'supreme governor', and society had become distinctly peaceful, gentry-dominated and 'civil' with the result that traditional social structures were being challenged. This course will examine various political, religious and social aspects including themes such as the restoration of government, the Tudor revolution and the break with Rome, the mid-Tudor crisis, economic and social change, the Elizabethan settlement and Tudor foreign policy.
Steven Ellis, The making of the British Isles: the state of Britain and Ireland, 1450-1660 (Harlow, 2007)
John Guy, Tudor England (Oxford, 1988)
Christopher Haigh, English reformations: religion, politics, and society under the Tudors (Oxford, 1993)
HI170: Europe, 1919-89 Modern
Dr Gearóid Barry
This is a survey lecture module of politics and society across Europe since the First World War. It will pay special attention to key states such as Germany, France and the Soviet Union and key themes such as the role of political ideology, ethnic conflict, decolonization and the process of European integration. Students will be exposed to a broad range of historiographical interpretations, seeking to a give a holistic overview that does not excessively privilege Western Europe or the totalitarian states.
HI2102: The Modern United States, 1865-2008 Modern
Dr Enrico Dal Lago
This lecture module will introduce students to the history and historiography of the United States between the end of the Civil War and the last presidential elections. Specific themes will include racial politics in the U.S. South, expansion into the West, industrialization, imperialism, the two world wars and the making of the U.S. global power, the Cold War, the 1960s with the Civil Rights Movement, the student protest, and Vietnam, and finally the long conservative backlash from Nixon to Bush, Jr.
Final Year BA (Joint Honours)
Welcome to Final Year History
The information here is for students following the BA (Joint Honours), taking History and one other subject. If you are following the BA (History )(Single Honours) degree, visit this page.
- Modules on offer 2017-18
- Final Yr & Connect Timetable 2017-18
- Final Year & Connects Handbook 2017-18
Module selection: Semester 1
- Seminar (10 ECTS)
- Lecture Module (5 ECTS)
Module selection: Semester 2
- Seminar (10 ECTS)
- Lecture Module (5 ETCS)
Seminars and Lecture Modules - What's the difference?
- Seminars are 10 ECTS
- Small groups with an emphasis on participation, class presentation, research and academic writing
- Compulsory attendance
- Assessment based on Participation (10%), Presentation (20%), and continuous assessment (70%)
- Lecture Modules are 5 ECTS
- medium to large size classes taught through 2 one-hour lectures per week by lecturer with additional tutorials (usually 5) over the semester
- Assessment normally based on assignments or a mid-term essay, and written 2 hour exam.
Seminars (10 ECTS)
- HI583 Problems in the Use of Popular Print Media - Caitríona Clear
- HI3121 Famine In Ireland, 1845-50 - Niall Ó Ciosáin
- HI439 Vichy France - Gearóid Barry
- HI165 Life in Urban Galway from the Act of Union - John Cunningham
- HI3110 European Warfare, 1618-1714: Theory & Practice - Pádraig Lenihan
- HI484 Slavery & Emancipation in the American South - Enrico Dal Lago
- HI3125 Civil War and Society in France, 1572-1598 - Alison Forrestal
- HI578 Children and the State in Ireland, 1838-2011 - Sarah-Anne Buckley
- HI569 Aristocratic Women in Medieval Society - Kimberly LoPrete
- HI574.I Researching, Presenting and Writing History I: From Hibernia to Persia: Cultural INteraction and Assimilation along the Roman Frontiers ins Late Antiquity - Chrisopher Doyle
Lecture Modules (5 ECTS)
- HI337 Nazi Germany - Róisín Healy
- HI358 The Tudor Conquest of Ireland - Mark Empey
Seminars (10 ECTS)HI3115 Poverty, Crime & Institutions, Europe 1780 – 1914 - Caitriona Clear
- HI3115 Poverty, Crime & Institutions, Europe 1780 – 1914 - Caitriona Clear
- HI3102 The Irish in Colonial Australasia - Laurence Marley
- HI3123 Power & Pleasure at Versailles: The Reign of Louis XIV (1661-1715) - Alison Forrestal
- HI479 Irish Political Thought in the 1930s - Tomás Finn
- HI168 Coming to Terms with the Nazi Past - Róisín Healy
- HI3119 The Reign of Henry VIII - Mark Empey
- HI3112 The First World War: Transnational Perspectives - Gearóid Barry
- HI3126 Labour Radicalism in the Anglophone World, c. 1900-1939 - John Cunningham
- HI574.II: Researching, Presenting and Writing History II: Saints Alive! Hagiography as History - Niamh Wycherley
Lecture Modules (5ECTS)
- HI365: Native North Americans: From Pre-History to Present - Enrico Dal Lago
- HI362 Party & Power in 19th Century British History - Laurence Marley
- HI488 Labour in Irish Society & Politics in Ireland, 1760-1960 - John Cunningham
HI439: Vichy France
Dr Gearóid Barry
The core work of this module consists of the reading and analysis of selected secondary literature (book excerpts and articles) and important translated primary source documents on the period of the Second World War in France; between 1940 and 1944, a defeated France disappeared from the front row of the war and underwent four hard years of occupation by the German army and the Nazi war machine. The course sets the dramatic fall of France in 1940 in the context of France’s interwar political divisions. From this shock came the creation of a collaborationist and authoritarian Vichy state under Marshal Philippe Pétain whom many French people hailed – at first- as a war-hero- turned-saviour of the country. Faced with German occupiers and a French government that increasingly collaborated with the economic and racial demands of the Nazis, Frenchmen and Frenchwomen faced daily choices about co-operating, resisting or just surviving. Anti-Semitic persecution – that initiated by the French themselves and the co-operation of the French government in the Holocaust- is a shocking and dramatic part of this story that we will cover in detail. We shall also linger, however, in the fascinating ‘grey zone’ of survival that most people lived in, most of the time, acting neither as heroes nor as villains. The role of the De Gaulle’s Free French and of the internal Resistance, ranging in beliefs from Communists to Catholics, must also feature, as does, at the course’s end, the question of what sort of justice was done in France’s post-war purge and why the rights and wrongs of Vichy France remain apparent obsessions for France down to the present day.
Richard Vinen, The Unfree French: Life under the Occupation (London: Penguin, 2007).Carmen Calil, Bad Faith: A forgotten history of family and fatherland (London: Jonathan Cape, 2006).
Julian Jackson, France: the Dark Years, 1940-44 (Oxford, OUP, 2003)
HI484: Slavery & Emancipation in the American South
Dr Enrico Dal Lago
Slavery shaped the economy, society and politics of the American South from the time the first Africans landed in Virginia in 1619 to the release of Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. This seminar course aims to provide student with the indispensable background for the selection, interpretation and use of the vast range of primary sources available on the history American slavery and for their interpretation within the context of current historiographical debates. Topics treated in the course include: colonial slavery; slavery and the American Revolution; the “Cotton Kingdom” and the ideology of the master class; the master- slave relationship; slave life and culture; slave resistance and slave rebellion; Abolitionism and the politics of slavery; and the American Civil War and slave Emancipation.
Rick Halpern & Enrico Dal Lago, eds., Slavery & Emancipation (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).
Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619-1877 (New York: Hill & Wang, 2003).
Ira Berlin, Generations of Captivity: A History of African American Slaves (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Harvard, 2003)
HI3125: Civil War & Society in France, 1572-1598
Dr Alison Forrestal
This module analyses the ferocious violence of the civil wars (the Wars of Religion) which convulsed France during the final four decades of the sixteenth century. It explores the new ideologies of sectarian hatred and opposition which shattered local communities and destabilized society, while also assessing the politics of the royal court and the factions of the nobility. It then examines the new political theories of resistance and toleration promoted by the warring Catholic and Protestant parties, with special emphasis on the views of major political writers who influenced events in France and the development of western political thought. The module finally systematically tracks the ways in which, following a decree of toleration (the Edict of Nantes) in 1598, the monarchy, society, and local communities sought to recover from the crisis of the Wars. Knowledge of the French language is not required, since readings (documents and secondary sources) will be provided in translation.
J. Garrisson, A History of Sixteenth-Century France, 1483-1598: Renaissance, Reformation and
Rebellion (Basingstoke 1995).
M. Greengrass, The French Reformation (Chichester 1987).
M. Holt, The French Wars of Religion, 1562-1629 (Cambridge 2005).
HI3110: European Warfare 1618-1714: Theory and Practice
Dr Pádraig Lenihan
This is primarily a study of the tactics and technology of European warfare on land and sea during an epoch of religious wars, unprecedented diplomatic realignments, rising and failing states, a ‘general crisis’ and external Ottoman pressure. Through discussion, presentation and self-directed learning, with an emphasis on contemporary texts, the module will progress thematically through such themes as state policy and grand strategy, tactical changes as a response to gunpowder weaponry, the (in)decisiveness of battle, ‘heroism’ versus ‘technique’ in the Vaubanian siege, manoeuvre, logistics and ‘contributions’, the impact of war on civilians, moral contexts: the ‘laws of war’ and the ‘law of nations’, women in the world of camp and train, recruitment and promotion, officers and men, the intellectual inheritance of classical Greek and Rome.
HI3121: The Famine in Ireland 1845-50
Dr Niall Ó Ciosáin
This seminar begins by examining famine in general, with a particular emphasis on theories of causation; then it looks at the role of famine within the pre-industrial demographic regime in Europe. These subjects are then brought to bear on a detailed study of the Irish famine of 1845-50 and its background. Topics include famine relief policy and practice, the social effects of famine and the memory of catastrophe.
David Arnold: Famine: Social Crisis and Historical Change (1988)
Ciarán Ó Murchadha, The Great Famine: Ireland's agony 1845-52 (2011)
Peter Gray, Famine Land and Politics: British Government and Irish Society 1843-1850 (1999)
HI583 Problems in the Use of Popular Print Media
Popular histories and journalism, and even some ‘serious’ historical works, sometimes use publications aimed at women (magazines, advice books, advertisements, women’s pages, girls’ comics, problem pages) as ‘straight’ historical evidence for women’s lives in the past. This course teaches students how not to take these rich, multi-textured sources at face value, but how to evaluate them critically and carefully, and how to understand them in several contexts – that of women’s changing lives at all social levels, that of the production of media, the growth of advertising and consumption patterns. The course’s main focus will be on Ireland and Britain, but some American studies will also be looked at, while the wider European context of economic, social and political change for women in these decades will of course be given due attention. A rigorous and thorough discussion of the kind of paid and unpaid work which women did, in all classes and in all geographical settings, and of women’s organizational and political life, will anchor these explorations firmly. Using, as well as traditional historical methodology, the insights of cultural history and media studies, this course will try to work out what relationship women had with these publications.
R.Ballaster, M. Beetham, E.Frazer and S.Hebron, Women’s Worlds: ideology, femininity and the woman’s magazine
Jennifer Scanlan, Inarticulate Longings: the Ladies’ Home Journal, gender and the promises of consumer culture
Linda.Korinek, Roughing it in the Suburbs: reading Chatelaine magazine.
Penny Tinkler, Constructing Girlhood:popular magazines for girls in England
HI578 Children and the State in IReland, 1838-2011
Attention has only recently been devoted to the experiences of the child in the historiography of nineteenth and twentieth century Ireland. This seminar will examine the care of children by the British and Irish State from the 1838 Poor Law Relief Act (Ireland) to the present, concentrating on issues of class, gender and religion. It will assess not only the State’s treatment of vulnerable children, but also its agencies and other charitable and voluntary organizations involved in child welfare provision. It will utilize a wide range of primary materials, including state papers, official debates and publications, newspaper articles, court records, case files, records of voluntary and charitable organizations, photographs, films and memoirs. It will address the actual treatment of children, as well as changing notions of childhood in Ireland during the period.
Aries, Philippe, Centuries of Childhood (London, 1962) 305.23 ARI.
Buckley, Sarah-Anne, The Cruelty Man: Child Welfare, the NSPCC and the State in Ireland, 1838-1956 (MUP, 2013).
Hendrick, Harry, Child Welfare: Historical Dimensions, Contemporary Debates (The Policy Press, 2003)
HI574.I: Researching, Presenting and Writing History I: From Hibernia to Persia: Cultural Interaction and Assimilation alog the Roman Frontiers in Late Antiquity
Dr Christopher Doyle
This module investigates relations between the late Roman Empire and its neighbours, c.AD200-700. This timeframe can be described alternatively as either the late antique or early medieval era. It was a period of profound religious, social, cultural and political change during which the great empires of Rome and Persia disintegrated, culminating in the emergence of Christendom and Islam. For over a thousand years, Roman literary and material culture stereotyped foreign cultures as inferior. Foreigners were considered uncivilized, primitive barbarians – people to be feared militarily and culturally. From northern Britain to the edge of the Sahara, from the Danube to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Rome built walls, and other fortifications around itself to protect its sovereignty, and to control trade borders. Non-Romans were perceived as dangerous or unpredictable barbarians, despite Rome’s commercial interaction with many of them. Yet, the so-called barbarians were instrumental in effecting important social, cultural, and religious change within the Roman society. Using primary literary (texts and laws), material (art, coinage, and inscriptions), and archaeological evidence, this module will examine certain aspects of cultural interaction – positive and negative – between Rome and the outside world in late antiquity.
HI569 Aristocratic Women in Medieval Society
Dr Kimberly LoPrete
Largely on the basis of works written by women, this seminar examines the diverse lived experiences and multiple contributions made by aristocratic women to society, politics & religious life in the early and central middle ages. The prevailing anti-feminism of the period is acknowledged though emphasis is placed on the ‘cracks’ in the hegemonic discourse that created spaces for learned and authoritative women.
Special attention is devoted to medieval ‘scientific’ views of sex and gender; to exploring women’s property rights and the domestic base of political activity, which allowed aristocratic women to play powerful ‘public’ roles; to women’s education and access to Latin literacy; and to determining whether the ‘Schmid-Duby thesis’, which posits a deterioration of women’s status after 1000, is tenable. Women & texts to be examined include Dhuoda (author of a handbook for success at the Carolingian court); the playwright, historian & nun Hrotsvita of Gandersheim; the Ottonian empresses Mathilda I and Adelheid; Heloise (lover of Abelard and a learned abbess); Adela, countess of Blois; and the polymathic visionary, Hildegard of Bingen.
S. Gilsdorf, tr., Queenship & Sanctity: The Lives of Mathilda & Epitaph of Adelheid (Washington, D.C.: Catholic U. Press, 2004) [primary sources].
T. Evergates, ed., Aristocratic Women in Medieval France (Philadelphia: U. Pennsylvania Press, 1999) [essays].
B. Newman, ed., Voice of the Living Light: Hildegard of Bingen & her World (Berkeley: U. California Press 1998) [essays].
HI337: Nazi Germany
Dr Róisín Healy
This module deals with the origins, course, and aftermath of Nazi Germany. It is divided into three sections: the first deals with the origins of Nazism and Nazi government until the outbreak of war in 1939; the second section looks at different groups within society, to see how they responded to Nazism; the last section deals with the war and the Holocaust, as well as efforts to come to terms with the Nazi past in the post-war period. The course will pay special attention to questions that have caused controversy among historians - such as whether Nazism represented a continuity or discontinuity in German history, the role of ordinary Germans in implementing the regime's racial policies, and the implications of the recent emphasis on their own wartime suffering.
HI358: The Tudor Conquest of Ireland
Dr Mark Empey
The death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603 was significant for two reasons. First, it signalled the end of Tudor rule over the kingdoms of England and Ireland. Second, it coincided with English forces finally defeating Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, after nine years of conflict and thus bringing an end to the last bastion of Gaelic rule in Ireland. In theory the result meant that the English Crown had full control over Ireland for the very first time: the Tudor conquest of Ireland had been completed. However, the reality was very different with modern historians describing Crown rule in sixteenth-century Ireland as 'the Tudor failure' or 'the incomplete conquest'.
This course will assess the Tudor programme for Ireland and the problems the Crown faced. It will examine themes such as the Tudor reform policy, the problems of reform, plantation and centralisation, the Reformation (did it succeed or fail?), protest and rebellion, identity and ideology, and the Nine Years' War.
HI376 Popular Culture in Pre-industrial Europe
Niall Ó Ciosáin
This course deals with traditional cultural forms as they existed in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly in Western Europe; the emerging differences between elite and popular culture; changes within popular culture caused by economic, religious and political developments; and the discovery of popular culture as an object of study in the late-18th century.
Peter Burke, Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe (1978)
Pieter Spierenberg, The Broken Spell: A cultural and anthropological history of preindustrial Europe (1991) ch.3
HI3115: Poverty Crime and Institutions, Europe 1780-1914
Dr Caitríona Clear
This module takes a transnational approach to poor relief provision, the new policing of the marginal, and the rise of institutions in the Italian peninsula, France, the Low Countries, Britain, Ireland, and some other European countries in the ‘long nineteenth century’ – from the revolutionary period to the First World War. It explores the relationships between poverty, crime and police - as verb and noun - and the growth of carceral, custodial and caring institutions in Europe. Course themes include the care and control of the poor 1780-1840; the growth of the new prison and the new penal system in the same period; the rise of the asylum and the apparent increase in insanity from the late eighteenth century and through the nineteenth century; the foundling crisis of the early nineteenth century and how it was dealt with; the rise of police forces and the problem of crime statistics; poverty in the cities, theories of ‘degeneracy’ and ‘criminality’, and ultimately the marginalization/reclamation of certain people – men ‘on the move’, women ‘on the streets’ and children ‘on their own’, in the years leading up to the First World War.
Olwen Hufton, The Poor of Eighteenth-century France 1750-1789. C. Lis, Social Change and the
Labouring Poor: Antwerp 1770-1830. Ruth Richardson, Death, Dissection and the Destitute. Daniel Pick, Faces of Degeneration: a European disorder 1848-1918.
HI3102: The Irish and Colonial Australasia
Dr Laurence Marley
What would people say if I became a policeman? - Ned Kelly, 1879
This module examines the various patterns of Irish settlement, identity formation and assimilation in Australasia, from the early penal colonies of the late eighteenth century to the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The principal areas under examination include: Irish convict transportation; emigration, both voluntary and government-assisted; race, the Irish and the colour bar in the antipodes; Irish involvement in policing and law and order at the frontier of the British empire; and the extent to which Old World sectarian divisions survived in the colonies. Taking a transnational approach, the course also considers the extent to which the Australasian colonies informed developments and debates in Ireland during the nineteenth century.
Patrick O’Farrell, ‘The Irish in Australia and New Zealand’, in F.X. Martin and W.E. Vaughan (eds), A New History of Ireland: Ireland Under the Union, I (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
Patrick O’Farrell, The Irish and Australia: 1788 to the Present (Cork: Cork University Press, 2001) [available on-line, James Hardiman Library].
Richard P. Davis, Irish Issues in New Zealand Politics, 1868-1922 (Otago: University of Otago Press,1974)
HI168: Coming to terms with the Nazi Past
Dr Róisín Healy
The devastating impact of the twelve years of Nazi rule on Germany and Europe continued to be felt in the decades after 1945. This module examines how post-war Germany and western society more generally dealt with this legacy, in particular the murder of six million Jews. It investigates the varying degrees of engagement with Nazi crimes across both sides of the Iron Curtain. Themes include the treatment of perpetrators, the experience of returning survivors, the phenomenon of Holocaust denial and the memory of Nazism’s victims. Students will address this question by means of sources such as survivor testimonies, newspapers, films and memorials as well as a substantial range of secondary literature.
Tim Cole. Images of the Holocaust: the myth of the ‘shoah business’ (London: Duckworth, 1999).
Bill Niven. Facing the Nazi Past: United Germany and the Legacy of the Third Reich (London, Routledge, 2003).
Peter Novick. The Holocaust and Collective Memory: The American Experience (London:
Lynn, J.A. The Wars of Louis XIV 1667-1714 (Longman, 1999). Childs, J. Warfare in the Seventeenth- Century (London, 2001).
Black, J. A Military Revolution? Military Change and European Society 1550-1800 (London, 1991).
HI3112: The First World War: Transnational Perspectives
Dr Gearóid Barry
The First World War – which mobilized entire societies for war on an unprecedented scale - raises enduring questions about coercion, consent and violence in modern society. Taking the approach of transnational history – which seeks to identify links and common themes across national borders- this course combines national histories of large and small belligerents (ranging, for example, from Germany, France and the UK to Serbia) with a thematic approach examining the place of the First World War in social and cultural change and continuity in Europe and the wider world in the twentieth century. Thus, our readings may consider diverse themes such as women’s war work, nationalism, religion and the use of poison gas and submarine warfare. Against the background of the war’s centenary, students will also engage with topical issues of popular memory and the ever lively historical debates and controversies relating to the First World War and its consequences.
David Stevenson, 1914-1918: The history of the First World War (London: Penguin, 2005).Michael S. Neiberg, Dance of the Furies: Europe and the Outbreak of World War I (Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press, 2011).
John Horne (ed.), A Companion to World War I (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010).
HI574.II: Researching, Presenting and Writing History: Saints Alive! Hagiography as History
Dr Niamh Wycherly
Hagiographical texts are literary biographies (Lives) of saints. The value of hagiography as an historical source has been sometimes questioned. However, this category of material must make up the single largest body of evidence for medieval life and thought and thus cannot be ignored. While it may not provide many concrete facts about the life of a particular saint, hagiography is an excellent resource for the study of social history, anthropology and belief systems of the middle ages. By analyzing the primary hagiographical texts, this seminar will examine the genre and evaluate its value as an historical source. We will chart the evolution of hagiography from the first acta of the early Christian martyrs in Late Antiquity up to the controversial multiple Lives of Thomas Becket in the twelfth century. There will be a particular focus on early Irish hagiography and the Lives of Brigit, Patrick and Columba.
Thomas Head, Medieval hagiography: an anthology (New York, 2001)
T. J. Heffernan, Sacred biography: saints and their biographers in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1988).
John Carey, Máire Herbert and Pádraig Ó Riain (eds.), Studies in Irish hagiography: saints and scholars (Dublin, 2001).
Steve Boardman and Eila Williamson (eds.), The cult of saints and the Virgin Mary in medieval Scotland (Woodbridge, 2010).
HI3119: The Reign of Henry VIII
Dr Mark Empey
This seminar examines the career, ambitions and accomplishments of one of the most complex yet intriguing personalities of the sixteenth century: Henry VIII (1509-47). In the eyes of his contemporaries he had all the monarchical virtues in full measure: magnificence, military power and success, and temperament. In addition to investigating his character in detail, other aspects for discussion include assessing his governance over his dominions (and those he claimed), namely England, Ireland, Wales, France and Scotland. It will also critically analyse Henry's foreign policy, his break with Rome and the implications of the Tudor Reformation, the succession problem, and the socio-economic changes which posed significant challenges to Henry's reign.
HI3123: Power & Pleasure at Versailles: The Reign of Louis XIV (1661-1715)
Dr Alison Forrestal
‘But for the fear of the devil, King Louis would have caused himself to be worshipped as a god…Glory was his passion.’
In this module students will study the development of one of the most important and controversial states in early modern Europe, under the rule of King Louis XIV. The ‘Sun King’ was admired, feared, and loathed by his contemporaries, but few doubted his ambition: during his long reign, the French monarchy became synonymous with the pursuit of ‘absolute’ royal power and kingly glory on the domestic and international fronts. This module will examine the realities and illusions of royal authority in this period, investigating French ambitions and strategies in diplomacy and war, the treatment of minorities and dissidents in French society, the recasting of traditional forms of government into more centralized methods of political and social control, and the lavish culture and society of court life at Versailles. Knowledge of the French language is not required, since readings (documents and secondary sources) will be provided in translation.
David Smith, Louis XIV (Cambridge University Press 2010)
David Sturdy, Louis XIV (Palgrave MacMillan 1998)
Richard Wilkinson, Louis XIV, France and Europe 1661-1715 (Hodder 2002)
HI479 Irish Political Thought in the 1930s
Within a decade of independence the Irish population was deeply divided on the nature of the emerging Irish state, its identity, and its relationship with Britain and the wider world. This seminar introduces students to debates on these issues, as evident in speeches and writings in the 1930s. It examines the ideologies of the main Irish political parties and considers critiques of the emerging Irish Free State by radical Republicans, Vocationalists and Blueshirts, situating them in the context of European ideologies in this period. It examines attitudes towards Anglo-Irish relations and Irish responses to European conflicts. It also considers the development of Unionist identity in Northern Ireland and southern Irish perceptions of the Northern state.
J. Augusteijn, Ireland in the 1930s: new perspectives (Dublin, 1999).
D. McMahon, Republicans and imperialists: Anglo-Irish relations in the 1930s (New Haven,
HI3126 Labour Radicalism in the Anglophone World, c. 1900-1939
Dr John Cunningham
Focusing on the Anglophone world (USA, Canada, Ireland, Britain, and Australia in particular), this seminar module will examine the emergence of the radical labour ideologies of syndicalism (or industrial unionism) and communism in the early twentieth century. It will consider the organisational forms and cultures of the principal movements espousing these ideologies (i.e., the 'Wobblies', originating in the US, c.1905; the Russian-dominated Communist movement, post-1917), discuss the relationship of one to the other, and compare their orientations towards social democratic and nationalist movements.
HI362: Party & Power in 19th and 20th century British History
Dr Laurence Marley
This course explores the relationship between the exercise of political power and the development of political parties in Britain in the period c. 1800 – c.1918. The lectures consider the interplay between ideological and socio-economic forces, organisational structures, leadership and mass political mobilisation. Areas under examination will include the Great Reform Act of 1832 and the changing nature of electoral/political culture during the course of the nineteenth century; the rise of Chartism, the greatest movement of popular protest in British history; the role of the empire factor in party politics in this age of imperialist expansion; suffragist and suffragette campaigns for female franchise in the late Victorian and Edwardian periods; and the rise of independent labour politics in Westminster, and the ultimately political eclipse of the great Liberal Party, particularly after the impact of WWI. Given the legislative union between Great Britain and Ireland from 1801, this survey of British political history in the ‘long nineteenth century’ will prove indispensable to those also interested in parallel developments in Ireland during that period.
Stephen J. Lee, Aspects of Modern British History, 1815-1914 (London, 1994)
K.T. Hoppen, The Mid-Victorian Generation, 1846-1886 (Oxford, 1998)
Martin Pugh, The Making of British Politics, 1867-1945 (Oxford, 2002)
HI365: Native North Americans: From Pre-history to Present
Dr Enrico Dal Lago
This course is designed as a general introduction to the history of Native Peoples in the North American continent, with particular emphasis on the last 300 years. Its main focus revolves around the transformations brought upon Native American culture and society by the encounter with European civilization. Exploring topics such as Conquest and Colonization, Native Americans and European Empires, Indian Removal, the Making of the Western Frontier, the Plains Wars, and the New Native American Consciousness, the course will enable students to pursue their own interests in the history and culture of particular Native American populations. Anthropological concepts will play a key part in explaining the process of change undergone by different tribes in different places. Students will be encouraged to develop a theoretical framework that will enable them to approach the study of indigenous peoples in a multidisciplinary fashion.
HI488: Labour in Irish Society & Politics in Ireland, c. 1760-1960
This module examines the history of labour in Ireland. It analyses the character of rural and urban protest movements representing the working poor; it traces the development of trade unionism throughout the island, with particular reference to the cities of Dublin and Belfast; it assesses the impact of radical ideologies and the connections with movements in other countries; it investigates the nature of the competition from nationalist and unionist politics; and it discusses the reasons for the stunted political development of Irish labour.
Emmet O’Connor, A Labour History of Ireland, 1824-2000, Dublin: UCD 2011.
Francis Devine (ed.), A capital in conflict: Dublin city and the 1913 lockout, Dublin; Four Courts, 2013.
Donal Nevin (ed.), Trade Union Century, Dublin: RTE/Mercier, 1994.
Head of Third Year History
Dr. Pádraig Lenihan, Room 312, Tower 1, Floor 1. email@example.com