Dr Linda Howard

B.Sc., Ph.D.

 
researcher
 

Biography

Linda Howard is  a lecturer in cellular therapies at the Regenerative Medicine Institute (REMEDI) at NUI Galway.
Linda graduated from the University of Warwick, Coventry UK with a degree in Microbiology and Microbial Technology. She completed a Ph.D. with the Medical Research Council (MRC) Toxicology Unit in the UK on cloning and characterising a novel proteolytic enzyme. Based on her interest in proteolytic enzymes she moved to the laboratory of Professor Wen-Tien Chen as a Post-doctoral Research Fellow in the Lombardi Cancer Center at Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA  where she conducted research on the role of proteolytic enzymes in tumour cell invasion and metastasis. Following this she undertook a Post-doctoral Research Fellowship with Professor Blobel at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA where she worked on cloning, characterising and analysing the function of cell surface proteolytic enzymes.
Following her postdoctoral work Linda became a Scientist at Osiris Therapeutics in Baltimore MD USA. This company was developing therapies based on adult stem cells.  
Linda moved from the USA to REMEDI at NUI Galway to participate in the development of a stem cell research program  In 2007 Linda started the M.Sc. in Regenerative Medicine which she now directs.

Research Interests

Adult stem cells, Regulation of Stem Cell Differentiation, micro RNA regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation

Peer Reviewed Journals

  Year Publication
(2007) 'Effect of gene delivery of NOS isoforms on intimal hyperplasia and endothelial regeneration after balloon injury'
Cooney, R;Hynes, SO;Sharif, F;Howard, L;O'Brien, T (2007) 'Effect of gene delivery of NOS isoforms on intimal hyperplasia and endothelial regeneration after balloon injury'. Gene Therapy, 14 :396-404 [DOI] [Details]
(2008) 'Gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells express functionally active nerve growth factor on an engineered poly lactic glycolic acid (PLGA) substrate'
Rooney, GE;Moran, C;McMahon, SS;Ritter, T;Maenz, M;Flugel, A;Dockery, P;O'Brien, T;Howard, L;Windebank, AJ;Barry, FP (2008) 'Gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells express functionally active nerve growth factor on an engineered poly lactic glycolic acid (PLGA) substrate'. Tissue Engineering Part A, 14 :681-690 [DOI] [Details]
(2008) 'Gene-eluting stents: Adenovirus-mediated delivery of eNOS to the blood vessel wall accelerates re-endothelialization and inhibits restenosis'
Sharif, F;Hynes, SO;Cooney, R;Howard, L;McMahon, J;Daly, K;Crowley, J;Barry, F;O'Brien, T (2008) 'Gene-eluting stents: Adenovirus-mediated delivery of eNOS to the blood vessel wall accelerates re-endothelialization and inhibits restenosis'. Molecular Therapy : The Journal Of The American Society Of Gene Therapy, 16 :1674-1680 [DOI] [Details]
(2010) 'Potential of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles for delivery of neurotrophins to the Parkinsonian rat brain'
Moloney, TC;Rooney, GE;Barry, FP;Howard, L;Dowd, E (2010) 'Potential of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles for delivery of neurotrophins to the Parkinsonian rat brain'. Brain Research, 1359 :33-43 [DOI] [Details]
(2012) 'Kinetics of thermally induced heat shock protein 27 and 70 expression by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells'
Moloney, TC;Hoban, DB;Barry, FP;Howard, L;Dowd, E (2012) 'Kinetics of thermally induced heat shock protein 27 and 70 expression by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells'. Protein Science, 21 :904-909 [DOI] [Details]
(2010) 'Survival and Immunogenicity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells From the Green Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Rat in the Adult Rat Brain'
Moloney, TC;Dockery, P;Windebank, AJ;Barry, FP;Howard, L;Dowd, E (2010) 'Survival and Immunogenicity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells From the Green Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Rat in the Adult Rat Brain'. Neurorehabilitation And Neural Repair, 24 :645-656 [DOI] [Details]
(2006) 'Gene transfer into rat mesenchymal stem cells: A comparative study of viral and nonviral vectors'
McMahon, JM;Conroy, S;Lyons, M;Greiser, U;O'Shea, C;Strappe, P;Howard, L;Murphy, M;Barry, F;O'Brien, T (2006) 'Gene transfer into rat mesenchymal stem cells: A comparative study of viral and nonviral vectors'. Stem Cells And Development, 15 :87-96 [Details]
(2017) 'Circulating MicroRNAs in Cancer'
O'Brien, KP;Ramphul, E;Howard, L;Gallagher, WM;Malone, C;Kerin, MJ;Dwyer, RM (2017) 'Circulating MicroRNAs in Cancer'. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1509 :123-139 [DOI] [Details]
(2019) 'Analysis of reactive astrocytes and NG2 proteoglycan in ex vivo rat models of spinal cord injury'
Patar, A,Dockery, P,Howard, L,McMahon, S (2019) 'Analysis of reactive astrocytes and NG2 proteoglycan in ex vivo rat models of spinal cord injury'. Journal Of Neuroscience Methods, 311 :418-425 [DOI] [Details]
(2019) 'Cell viability in three ex vivo rat models of spinal cord injury'
Patar, A,Dockery, P,Howard, L,McMahon, SS (2019) 'Cell viability in three ex vivo rat models of spinal cord injury'. Journal Of Anatomy, 234 :244-251 [DOI] [Details]
(2009) 'Elevation of cAMP in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transiently Upregulates Neural Markers Rather than Inducing Neural Differentiation'
Rooney, GE;Howard, L;O'Brien, T;Windebank, AJ;Barry, FP (2009) 'Elevation of cAMP in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transiently Upregulates Neural Markers Rather than Inducing Neural Differentiation'. Stem Cells And Development, 18 :387-398 [DOI] [Details]
(2014) 'A chondromimetic microsphere for in situ spatially controlled chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells'
Ansboro, S;Hayes, JS;Barron, V;Browne, S;Howard, L;Greiser, U;Lalor, P;Shannon, F;Barry, FP;Pandit, A;Murphy, JM (2014) 'A chondromimetic microsphere for in situ spatially controlled chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells'. Journal Of Controlled Release, 179 :42-51 [DOI] [Details]
(2017) 'Biodistribution and retention of locally administered human mesenchymal stromal cells: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction based detection of human DNA in murine organs'
Creane, M,Howard, L,O'Brien, T,Coleman, CM (2017) 'Biodistribution and retention of locally administered human mesenchymal stromal cells: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction based detection of human DNA in murine organs'. Cytotherapy, 19 :384-394 [DOI] [Details]
(2017) 'Circulating MicroRNAs in Cancer'
O'Brien, KP,Ramphul, E,Howard, L,Gallagher, WM,Malone, C,Kerin, MJ,Dwyer, RM,Rani, S (2017) 'Circulating MicroRNAs in Cancer'. Methods Mol Biol, 1509 :123-139 [DOI] [Details]
(2015) 'GDNF-SECRETING MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS PROVIDE LOCALIZED NEUROPROTECTION IN AN INFLAMMATION-DRIVEN RAT MODEL OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE'
Hoban, DB,Howard, L,Dowd, E (2015) 'GDNF-SECRETING MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS PROVIDE LOCALIZED NEUROPROTECTION IN AN INFLAMMATION-DRIVEN RAT MODEL OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE'. Neuroscience, 303 :402-411 [DOI] [Details]
(2015) 'Inefficiency in macromolecular transport of SCS-based microcapsules affects viability of primary human mesenchymal stem cells but not of immortalized cells'
Sanz-Nogués C;Horan J;Thompson K;Howard L;Ryan G;Kassem M;O'Brien T; (2015) 'Inefficiency in macromolecular transport of SCS-based microcapsules affects viability of primary human mesenchymal stem cells but not of immortalized cells'. Journal Of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 103 (11) [DOI] [Details]
(2013) 'Allogeneic Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Migration to Inflamed Joints In Vivo and Amelioration of Collagen Induced Arthritis When Transduced to Express CTLA4Ig'
Sullivan, C,Barry, F,Ritter, T,O'Flatharta, C,Howard, L,Shaw, G,Anegon, I,Murphy, M (2013) 'Allogeneic Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Migration to Inflamed Joints In Vivo and Amelioration of Collagen Induced Arthritis When Transduced to Express CTLA4Ig'. Stem Cells And Development, 22 :3203-3213 [DOI] [Details]
(2013) 'The reduction in immunogenicity of neurotrophin overexpressing stem cells after intra-striatal transplantation by encapsulation in an in situ gelling collagen hydrogel'
Hoban, DB,Newland, B,Moloney, TC,Howard, L,Pandit, A,Dowd, E (2013) 'The reduction in immunogenicity of neurotrophin overexpressing stem cells after intra-striatal transplantation by encapsulation in an in situ gelling collagen hydrogel'. Biomaterials, 34 :9420-9429 [DOI] [Details]
(2013) 'Growth differentiation factor-5 enhances in vitro mesenchymal stromal cell chondrogenesis and hypertrophy'
Coleman CM, Vaughan EE, Browe DC, Mooney E, Howard L, Barry F (2013) 'Growth differentiation factor-5 enhances in vitro mesenchymal stromal cell chondrogenesis and hypertrophy'. Stem Cells and Development, 22 (13):1968-1976 [DOI] [Details]
(2010) 'Potential of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles for delivery of neurotrophins to the Parkinsonian rat brain'
Moloney, TC,Rooney, GE,Barry, FP,Howard, L,Dowd, E (2010) 'Potential of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles for delivery of neurotrophins to the Parkinsonian rat brain'. Brain Research, 1359 :33-43 [DOI] [Details]
(2009) 'Elevation of cAMP in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transiently Upregulates Neural Markers Rather than Inducing Neural Differentiation'
Rooney, GE,Howard, L,O'Brien, T,Windebank, AJ,Barry, FP (2009) 'Elevation of cAMP in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transiently Upregulates Neural Markers Rather than Inducing Neural Differentiation'. Stem Cells And Development, 18 :387-398 [DOI] [Details]
(2009) 'Neurotrophic Factor-Expressing Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survive Transplantation into the Contused Spinal Cord Without Differentiating into Neural Cells'
Rooney, GE,McMahon, SS,Ritter, T,Garcia, Y,Moran, C,Madigan, NN,Flugel, A,Dockery, P,O'Brien, T,Howard, L,Windebank, AJ,Barry, FP (2009) 'Neurotrophic Factor-Expressing Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survive Transplantation into the Contused Spinal Cord Without Differentiating into Neural Cells'. Tissue Engineering Part A, 15 :3049-3059 [DOI] [ARAN Link] [Details]
(2008) 'Mesenchymal stem cells expressing TRAIL lead to tumour growth inhibition in an experimental lung cancer model'
Mohr, A,Lyons, M,Deedigan, L,Harte, T,Shaw, G,Howard, L,Barry, F,O'Brien, T,Zwacka, R (2008) 'Mesenchymal stem cells expressing TRAIL lead to tumour growth inhibition in an experimental lung cancer model'. Journal Of Cellular And Molecular Medicine, 12 :2628-2643 [DOI] [Details]
(2008) 'Effects of plating density and culture time on bone marrow stromal cell characteristics'
Neuhuber B, Swanger SA, Howard L, Mackay A, Fischer I. (2008) 'Effects of plating density and culture time on bone marrow stromal cell characteristics'. Exp Hematol, 36 (9):1176-1185 [Details]
(2004) 'Reevaluation of in vitro differentiation protocols for bone marrow stromal cells: disruption of actin cytoskeleton induces rapid morphological changes and mimics neuronal phenotype'
Neuhuber B, Gallo G, Howard L, Kostura L, Mackay A, Fischer I. (2004) 'Reevaluation of in vitro differentiation protocols for bone marrow stromal cells: disruption of actin cytoskeleton induces rapid morphological changes and mimics neuronal phenotype'. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, 77 (2):192-204 [Details]
(2001) 'Catalytic activity of ADAM28'
Howard L, Zheng Y, Horrocks M, Maciewicz RA, Blobel C. (2001) 'Catalytic activity of ADAM28'. FEBS LETTERS, 498 (1):82-86 [Details]
(2000) 'Cloning and characterization of ADAM28: evidence for autocatalytic pro-domain removal and for cell surface localization of mature ADAM28'
Howard L, Maciewicz RA, Blobel CP. (2000) 'Cloning and characterization of ADAM28: evidence for autocatalytic pro-domain removal and for cell surface localization of mature ADAM28'. Biochem J, 348 (1):21-27 [Details]
(1999) 'Interaction of the metalloprotease disintegrins MDC9 and MDC15 with two SH3 domain-containing proteins, endophilin I and SH3PX1'
Howard L, Nelson KK, Maciewicz RA, Blobel CP. (1999) 'Interaction of the metalloprotease disintegrins MDC9 and MDC15 with two SH3 domain-containing proteins, endophilin I and SH3PX1'. J. BIOL. CHEM, 274 (44):31693-31699 [Details]
(1999) 'A novel protease-docking function of integrin at invadopodia'
Mueller SC, Ghersi G, Akiyama SK, Sang QX, Howard L, Pineiro-Sanchez M, Nakahara H, Yeh Y, Chen WT. (1999) 'A novel protease-docking function of integrin at invadopodia'. J. BIOL. CHEM, 274 (35):24947-24953 [Details]
(1997) 'Transmembrane/cytoplasmic domain-mediated membrane type 1-matrix metalloprotease docking to invadopodia is required for cell invasion'
Nakahara H, Howard L, Thompson EW, Sato H, Seiki M, Yeh Y, Chen WT. (1997) 'Transmembrane/cytoplasmic domain-mediated membrane type 1-matrix metalloprotease docking to invadopodia is required for cell invasion'. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 94 (15):7959-7964 [Details]
(1997) 'Identification of the 170-kDa melanoma membrane-bound gelatinase (seprase) as a serine integral membrane protease'
Piñeiro-Sánchez ML, Goldstein LA, Dodt J, Howard L, Yeh Y, Tran H, Argraves WS, Chen WT. (1997) 'Identification of the 170-kDa melanoma membrane-bound gelatinase (seprase) as a serine integral membrane protease'. J. BIOL. CHEM, 272 (12):7595-7601 [Details]
(1996) 'Molecular cloning of MADM: a catalytically active mammalian disintegrin-metalloprotease expressed in various cell types'
Howard L, Lu X, Mitchell S, Griffiths S, Glynn P. (1996) 'Molecular cloning of MADM: a catalytically active mammalian disintegrin-metalloprotease expressed in various cell types'. Biochem J, 317 (1):45-50 [Details]
(1995) 'Membrane-associated metalloproteinase recognized by characteristic cleavage of myelin basic protein: assay and isolation'
Howard L, Glynn P. (1995) 'Membrane-associated metalloproteinase recognized by characteristic cleavage of myelin basic protein: assay and isolation'. Methods in Emzymology, 248 :388-395 [Details]

Other Journals

  Year Publication
(2017) '• Feasibility of autologous mesenchymal stem cells therapy for patients with no-option critical limb ischemia'
Mohamed, S. ; Howard, L. ; Duffy, A. ; Finnerty, A. ; Holohan, M. ; Doroshenkova, T. ; Mcinerney, V. ; Hayat, A. ; Krawczyk, J. ; Naughton, S. ; Tarpey, M. ; Moloney, T. ; Kavanagh, E. ; Liew, A. ; Tubassam, M. ; Walsh, S. ; O'Brien, T. (2017) '• Feasibility of autologous mesenchymal stem cells therapy for patients with no-option critical limb ischemia' Cytotherapy, The Journal of Cell Therapy, 19 (5) :S186-S187. [DOI] [Details]
(2017) 'Autologous mesenchymal stem cells as a novel therapy for no-option critical limb ischemia: Preliminary results of a phase 1 study'
Mohamed, S. ; Mcinerney, V. ; Dunne, A. ; Hayat, A. ; Krawczyk, J. ; Naughton, S. ; Tarpey, M. ; Finnerty, A. ; Holohan, M. ; Duffy, A. ; Moloney, T. ; Kavanagh, E. ; Burke, P. ; Abdeldaim, Y. ; Moloney, M. Clarke ; Howard, L. ; Liew, A. ; Tubassam, M. ; Walsh, S. ; O'Brien, T. (2017) 'Autologous mesenchymal stem cells as a novel therapy for no-option critical limb ischemia: Preliminary results of a phase 1 study' Cytotherapy, 19 (5) :S198-S198. [DOI] [Details]

Conference Contributions

  Year Publication
Autologous mesenchymal stem cells as a novel therapy for no-option critical limb ischemia: preliminary results of a phase 1 study,
Mohamed, S,McInerney, V,Dunne, A,Hayat, A,Krawczyk, J,Naughton, S,Tarpey, M,Finnerty, A,Duffy, A,Moloney, T,Kavanagh, E,Howard, L,Liew, A,Tubassam, M,Walsh, SR,O'Brien, T IRISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE. [Published Abstract], Autologous mesenchymal stem cells as a novel therapy for no-option critical limb ischemia: preliminary results of a phase 1 study, Sylvester O'Halloran Surgical Symposium Limerick . [Details]
(2017) 25th Sylvester O’Halloran Perioperative Scientific Symposium, 2017,
Mohamed, S; McInerney, V; Dunne, A.; Hayat, A; Krawczyk, J; Naughton, S; Tarpey, M; Finnerty, A; Duffy, A; Moloney, T; Kavanagh, E; Howard, L; Liew, A; Tubassam, M; Walsh S; O’Brien, T. (2017) Autologous mesenchymal stem cells as a novel therapy for no-option critical limb ischemia: preliminary results of a phase 1 study. [Oral Presentation], 25th Sylvester O’Halloran Perioperative Scientific Symposium, 2017, University of Limerick , 02-MAR-17 - 04-MAR-17. [Details]

Abstract

  Year Publication
(2008) Glial-Derived Neurotrophic Factor–Expressing Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survive Transplantation into the Contused Spinal Cord without Differentiating into Neural Cells. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, USA.
Rooney, Gemma E, McMahon, S, Ritter, T, Garcia, Y, Madigan, N, Flugel, A, Nickander, Kim, Dockery, P, O'Brien, T, Howard, L, Windebank, AJ, Barry, F (2008) Glial-Derived Neurotrophic Factor–Expressing Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survive Transplantation into the Contused Spinal Cord without Differentiating into Neural Cells. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, USA. Abstract [Details]
(2007) A Tissue engineering strategies for spinal cord Injury using mesenchymal stem cells. Keystone Tissue Engineering and Developmental Biology conference Utah USA.
Rooney, GE, Moran, C, McMahon, SS, Ritter, T, Maenz, M, Fluegel, A, Dockery, P, O' Brien, T, Howard, L, Windebank, AJ, Barry, FP (2007) A Tissue engineering strategies for spinal cord Injury using mesenchymal stem cells. Keystone Tissue Engineering and Developmental Biology conference Utah USA. Abstract [Details]
(2006) Lentiviral vector transduction efficiency and biosafety profile of aldult mesenchymal stem cells. American Societ of Gene Therapy 2006 Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
McGrath, BM, O'Shea, C, Howard, L, Murphy, M, Barry, F, O'Brien, T, Strappe, P (2006) Lentiviral vector transduction efficiency and biosafety profile of aldult mesenchymal stem cells. American Societ of Gene Therapy 2006 Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Abstract [Details]

Editorial

  Year Publication
(2010) Investigating the Ability of Anti-Oxidant Gene Expression in Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Cell Protection and Recovery in an in vitro Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
Lynch, AP,McGinley, L,Sheridan, C,Coleman, C,Howard, L,Kent, D,Barry, F (2010) Investigating the Ability of Anti-Oxidant Gene Expression in Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Cell Protection and Recovery in an in vitro Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Editorial [Details]

Meeting

  Year Publication
(2010) MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS FROM THE GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN TRANSGENIC RAT ARE HYPOIMMUNOGENIC FOLLOWING TRANSPLANTATION TO THE INTACT ADULT RAT STRIATUM.
Moloney, TC,Dockery, P,Barry, FP,Windebank, AJ,Howard, L,Dowd, E (2010) MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS FROM THE GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN TRANSGENIC RAT ARE HYPOIMMUNOGENIC FOLLOWING TRANSPLANTATION TO THE INTACT ADULT RAT STRIATUM. Meeting [Details]
(2007) An alternative strategy to reduce instent restenosis and prevent late stent thrombosis through enhanced endothelial regeneration using eNOS gene-eluting stents.
Sharif, F,Hynes, SO,Cooney, R,Howard, L,Mcmahon, J,Daly, K,Crowley, J,Barry, F,O'brien, T (2007) An alternative strategy to reduce instent restenosis and prevent late stent thrombosis through enhanced endothelial regeneration using eNOS gene-eluting stents. Meeting [Details]

Committees

  Committee Function From / To
College of Medicine Board of Studies Representative for School of Medicine Taught Postgraduate courses 01-FEB-16 /
School of Medicine School Board Representative for Taught Postgraduate Programs 01-JAN-16 / 01-DEC-18
School Post Graduate Taught Committee Chair 01-JAN-16 / 30-NOV-18
School of Medicine Executive Committee Taught postgraduate course representative 01-FEB-16 / 01-DEC-18
School of Natural Sciences Postgraduate Committee Representative for the NCBES 01-SEP-14 / 01-JAN-19
School of Medicine Postgraduate strategy Committee M.Sc in Regenerative Medicine Coordinator 01-JAN-08 /

Other Activities

  Description

External Examiner for Postgraduate certificate/postraduate diploma in Stem Cell Biology University of Ulster, UK

External Examiner for M.Sc in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, University of Aston UK

Teaching Interests

I am the course director for the taught M.Sc in Regenerative medicine at NUI Galway.
I am involved with teaching Ph.D. students, M.Sc students as well as undergraduate science and medicine students. My topics of interest are stem cells, regenerative medicine, gene therapy, molecular biology and biomedical research techniques. I am also interested in the process of moving a research finding from the laboratory into the clinic. I am a great believer in problem based learning and in hands on research training.

Current Postgraduate Students (Research)

  Student Degree Type Type
Sara Mohamed Doctorate - Structured Ph.D (Medicine) Supervisor
Yicheng Ding Doctorate - Structured Ph.D (Medicine) Co-supervisor (1)

Modules Taught

  Term/Year Module Title Module Code Subject / Desc
Semester I Molecular & Regenerative Medicine BES510 Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells and Gene Therapy
Semester II Molecular Medicine BES554 Stem Cell Biology and Gene Therapy
Semester II Special Study Module in Regenerative Medicine (1st year medical students) Regenerative medicine, Stem cells, Gene Therapy
Semesters I and II Advanced Research Techniques REM503 Hands on training in stem cell culture, stem cell differentiation assays, RNA isolation, quantitative RT PCR, protein gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry and molecular biology.
Biotechnology Stem cells, stem cells and disease, creating pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells
Summer Term Research Project REM505 A key element of the taught M.Sc. is an individual research project. Over 4-5 months you will get significant research experience including presenting your research findings as a poster, as an oral presentation and also as a written thesis.
Semester I and II Regenerative Medicine REM504 Stem cells, gene therapy, tissue engineering, recombinant proteins and scaffolds
Semester II Translational Medicine REM502 What steps are required in order to take a research finding and use it to develop a therpay (or diagnostic)? This course covers the steps involved and the ethics to be considered.