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Tuesday, 9 January 2001
Release date: 9 January, 2001 NUI Galway scientist honoured for his work in Atmospheric Science Professor S. Gerard Jennings was conferred recently with the degree of Doctor Honoris Causa (Honorary Doctorate) by the University of G" teborg, Sweden. This honorary degree was awarded in recognition of the world-recognised research achievements of Professor Jennings in the field of Atmospheric Science, which embraces aerosol and cloud physics; and climate and environmental change. At the ceremony, an honorary degree was also conferred on Dr. Arvid Carlsson, the winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2000. Professor S. Gerard Jennings directs the Atmospheric Research Group, in the Department of Physics at NUI, Galway. He, in collaboration with departmental colleagues has been instrumental in establishing and operating the world renowned Atmospheric Research Station at Mace Head, near Carna, Co. Galway. The station s location on the west coast provides an ideal platform for the study of properties of atmospheric aerosol particles. It is now recognised that aerosols (microscopic airborne particles) can give rise to cooling and thus counteract warming of the earth's surface due to increasing concentration of greenhouse gases. Aerosol particles vary considerably, both spatially and temporally and in the context of understanding changes in climate, the study of aerosol particles is assuming new and critical importance. Professor Jennings is also involved in research with the recently-established Environmental Change Institute at NUI, Galway. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418
Tuesday, 27 February 2001
Release date: 27 February, 2001 NUI Galway Scientists Investigate the Problem of Premature Births Approximately 5-10% of all babies born in Ireland are pre-term deliveries and in the Galway area the exact incidence is 6-7%, according to work published by the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology at NUI, Galway. Premature babies require long periods of hospitalisation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and experience problems in relation to ventilation, infection, nutrition and overall development. It is known that these babies suffer high incidence of complications in childhood including chest complications, hearing and visual defects, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. Professor John Morrison at the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, NUI, Galway together with Dr. Terry Smith of the National Diagnostics Centre, NUI, Galway have initiated and set up novel research with the aims of primarily outlining causes of premature labour at the gene expression level, and secondly developing new methods of treatment for pre-term labour. This research has identified novel genes, which are switched on and apparently up-regulated at the time of human labour. Further evaluation of this gene expression will help to explain the cascade of events that lead to women going into labour early. In addition, this research has demonstrated that compounds related to this gene expression may be used in the treatment of pre-term labour. This research, which is unique in Ireland, involves taking a minute biopsy from the muscle of the womb (called the myometrium) at Caesarean section, which is a strictly regulated procedure that is approved by the Ethics Committee at University College Hospital Galway. Tissue collection takes place in the hospital and the molecular and physiological research is carried out in the Clinical Science Institute (NUI, Galway Medical School) and in the National Diagnostic Centre on campus. This research is being funded by the HEA, the Health Research Board and the NUI, Galway Millennium Research Fund. Professor John Morrison is available for interview on this subject. ENDS Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel: 091-750418
Wednesday, 21 February 2001
Release date: 21 February, 2001 New Registrar appointed in NUI Galway Professor Jim Browne has been appointed Registrar of NUI, Galway. A former Dean of Engineering and Director of CIMRU (Computer Integrated Manufacturing Research Unit), Professor Browne commences his four-year term of office at a time of rapid growth and development in NUI, Galway. New buildings, which have come on stream as part of a £45m capital development plan, have greatly improved facilities for the university s students, now numbering more than 11,000. One of Professor Browne s priorities is the implementation of improved policies and strategies to encourage excellence in teaching and research. "With the rapid developments in tele-computing and multimedia, new flexible learning models are now possible and desirable", says Professor Browne. " A well-resourced university- wide initiative to develop ICT (Information and Communications Technology) enabled teaching and learning for all students, will facilitate part-time and mature students in particular." The traditional role of a university is to advance knowledge through research and scholarship. In recent years however, its role in providing skilled graduates for a knowledge-based economy has also been emphasised. Pressing social and community objectives, such as the provision of systems to accommodate second chance education and mature students must also be met. "Against this background of change and growth", says Professor Browne "the Registrar must provide academic leadership to the academic community and ensure the primacy of the academic mission in the life of NUI, Galway." Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer Tel. 091 750418
Monday, 19 February 2001
Release date: 19 February, 2001 How bad is the air we breathe? New Environmental Study to investigate latest levels The dramatic increase in the volume of traffic, regularly causing gridlock on our city streets, is not simply a cause of frustration but also a health hazard. There are other air pollutants however, and although traffic is an important source, its contribution to air pollution levels is not yet quantified for Irish cities. A major three-year survey headed by Professor Gerard Jennings of the Air Quality Technology Centre, Department of Experimental Physics at NUI, Galway will investigate the impact of various factors, including transport on air quality. The project, funded to amount £411,000, is part of the Environmental Research Programme 2000-2006 of the National Development Plan, which is beingimplemented by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). "The main objective of the research will be to determine the principal sources of particulate matter (PM) emitted to urban air, by obtaining the chemical composition of the air pollution particles", says Professor Jennings. Primary sources such as road traffic and industry and secondary sources, resulting from chemical reaction of vehicle exhaust gases, will be identified. Urban pollution also comes from rural sources. "Air pollution knows no boundaries," warns Professor Jennings, "so it is important to obtain the contribution of trans-boundary air pollution to urban levels." "Time is running out for us to put our house in order in this regard," says Professor Jennings. "Compliance must to be reached by 2005 with stringent air quality standards for aerosol particulate levels, laid down by the European Union. These standards are measured in terms of mass concentration of particles smaller than 10 micrometres in diameter, so called PM10 Five sampling sites will be used in the Study, with two sampling locations in Dublin City (College Street and the Civic Offices, Dublin Corporation) and one in Cork City. A rural site in County Galway (near Ballinasloe) and a coastal site on the east coast will also be used. It is hoped to identify areas vulnerable to exceedances of PM limits and to understand the causes of these exceedances and their potential impact on air quality and health- related issues. Where exceedances do occur, it will be necessary to introduce measures in order to reduce emissions of PM10 substances, so as to secure compliance limits set by the European Union. Professor Jennings has already carried out a ground-breaking study in partnership with Dublin Corporation and TMS Environment Ltd., at six Dublin City sites over a thirteen-month period from January 1996 to January 1997. He says that, "the role of pollutant aerosol particles takes on extra significance because of the linkage of PM10 and PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 micrometres in size) with human health. A strong association has been found between morbidity rates and increased PM levels, as shown for example by several studies in US cities". A consortium of partners, co-ordinated by Prof. S. Gerard Jennings, will participate in this new Study. They include: University of Birmingham, Division of Environmental Health (Prof. R.M. Harrison, Dr. A.G. Allen); Dublin Corporation - Atmospheric Pollution and Environment Unit (Ms Evelyn Wright), and University College Cork, Department of Chemistry (Prof. John Sodeau, Dr.John Wenger), in collaboration with Cork Corporation (Edmond Barry). Professor Jennings is available for interview on this Study Ends For further details: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091-750418
Monday, 12 February 2001
Release date: 12 February, 2001 NUI Galway scientists develop rapid test for potentially paralysing infection When people complain of suffering from a tummy bug, it might be just a mild infection, which is easily treated leaving no after effects. Alternatively, they could be among the increasing number of sufferers in this country, who have contracted a form of gastroenteritis, which may lead to paralysis. Scientists at NUI, Galway have developed a rapid test to detect strains of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), the commonest cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, with the potential to cause a rare neurological complication, known as Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). "There are increasing concerns at the level of illness caused by C. jejuni infection, which now exceeds the combined total of enteritis cases caused by Salmonella, E. coli, and Shigella", says Dr. Anthony Moran of NUI, Galway s Department of Microbiology, who has done extensive research in this area. "Although numbers of sufferers in this country are on the increase, there is limited public awareness of the condition, which if not diagnosed and treated correctly, can have catastrophic consequences for the patient". In total, 2085 cases of laboratory-confirmed C. jejuni enteritis were reported in 1999 in Ireland. In the UK and US, where there is significant public awareness of the condition, C. jejuni is regarded as a major contributor to employee absenteeism. It is estimated that 2 million working days per year are lost in the UK due to gastroenteritis caused by C. jejuni. Furthermore, there is an estimated annual incidence of C. jejuni-associated enteritis of between 2-10 million cases in the USA alone, and the condition costs in the region of $1.3-6.2 billion US dollars per annum. Symptoms of C. jejuni infection usually include diarrhoea, fever, nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps, which are often severe enough to mimic appendicitis. Enteritis most often results from consumption of untreated milk or water, or via consumption of undercooked poultry meat. Patients with C. jejuni enteritis usually recover within a few days but in a small proportion of cases, a rare neurological disorder, known as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) develops 7-10 days after the onset of enteritis symptoms. According to Dr. Martina Prendergast, a member of Dr. Moran s research team, "the disease affects about 1-2/100,000 of the population per year, translating into 40-50 potential new Irish GBS cases each year". Significantly, Dr. Moran says that, "GBS has replaced polio as the leading cause of infectious paralytic disease. Moreover, he adds that, "when added to the cost of C. jejuni enteritis, treatment costs for GBS add up to a further $2 billion US dollars to the economic impact of C. jejuni infection in the USA each year". Although it affects both sexes of any age, GBS affects men more commonly than women by a ratio of 1.5:1, and the incidence increases with age. Symptoms of GBS begin with a tingling or a pins and needles feeling in the toes and tips of fingers, which rapidly progresses to include the whole of the limbs. Weakness and numbness progress to a paralysis, which may involve respiratory muscles. Months can elapse before the patient s recovery begins. Substantial improvement occurs within the next 3-12 months in the majority of cases, but 20% of GBS patients are left with a residual disability and about 5% of patients die. In most cases of GBS, a link with C. jejuni infection is suspected. The rapid test to detect C. jejuni strains that the research team of Dr. Anthony Moran and Dr. Martina Prendergast of the Department of Microbiology in NUI, Galway have developed, eliminates the need to grow large quantities of organism and substantially reduces the time needed for strain characterisation. "Hundreds of strains can be screened quickly and cheaply, and the test could be routinely used in hospital laboratories to detect potential disease-causing strains", says Dr. Moran. The research team is also investigating safety issues in the development of a C. jejuni vaccine. The work is funded as part of a three-year on-going project by the Irish Health Research Board. Dr. Anthony Moran is available for interview on the details of his research. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer. Tel. 091 750418
Tuesday, 6 February 2001
Release date: 6 February, 2001 NUI Galway Graduate appointed Cardinal Pope John Paul has announced the appointment of seven more Cardinals, among them the Franciscan Archbishop of Durban (Republic of South Africa), Wilfrid Napier. Wilfrid Napier was born in Matatiele, South Africa, in 1941 and grew up amid the injustices brought about by the apartheid regime of the country at that time. His family knew the Franciscans from Ireland, who ministered in the area and Wilfrid came to this country, where he joined the Order at their Novitiate in Killarney. He went on to study in the Faculty of Arts at NUI, Galway, where he took a B.A. degree in Latin and English, graduating in 1964. He excelled at sports - and is still prone to using sporting metaphors when preaching. Having been professed in St Anthony s College, Galway in 1964, he went to the Irish Franciscan College at Leuven, Belgium, where in succession he took degrees in Philosophy and in Theology. He then returned to his native South Africa, where he has progressed to the highest ranks of the Catholic Church. He became Bishop of Kokstad, his native diocese, in 1981, at the age of forty. He served a term as President of the South African Bishop s conference, and was frequently its spokesman. In 1992, he was appointed Archbishop of Durban. As a distinguished alumnus of the University, Archbishop Napier was conferred with an Honorary Doctor of Laws in NUI, Galway on June 26th 1995. Ends Information From: Máire Mhic Uidhir. Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418
Wednesday, 21 March 2001
Release date: 21 March, 2001 Three NUI Galway Researchers Honoured for Excellence in Erosion and Sediment Control Three National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI, Galway) researchers have been honoured for excellence in natural resource conservation and environmental protection. The researchers measured the amount of erosion resulting from sheep grazing peat hillsides in western Ireland. Rain can wash sediment from such erosion into streams, threatening water quality and spawning grounds of wild Atlantic salmon. John Mulqueen, of Teagasc, who is based in the University and Michael Rodgers and Niall Marren, of NUI, Galway s Civil Engineering Department, describe their findings in a technical paper, Erosion of Hill Peat in Western Ireland. Their paper has received the 2001 Most Distinguished Technical Paper Award, from the International Erosion Control Association (IECA). Dr. Michael Rodgers accepted the award on behalf of all three researchers during formal ceremonies at the recent 2001 IECA conference in Las Vegas, Nevada, Nearly 2000 erosion control professionals from around the world attended the conference. The award is made to a scientific paper that contributes most to advancing erosion control knowledge and also recognises concise, clear technical writing, which presents innovative solutions to erosion control problems. The NUI, Galway research, the first of its kind involving peat hillsides, was prompted by concerns that increased stocking rates of sheep could accelerate erosion. Grazing by more sheep could remove too much soil-protecting vegetation and increased foot treading on paths could loosen the peat soils, leaving them more vulnerable to the erosive impact of raindrops and to runoff. The two-year field study involved an 8-hectare Leenane subcatchment of the Erriff River on a Teagasc research farm at Glendavock townland (Co. Mayo). Many slopes on the farm have gradients of 9% to 18%. Average annual rainfall, about 2,500 mm, is among the highest in Ireland. In addition to the field studies at Leenane, the researchers conducted laboratory tests on undisturbed slabs of peat from Leenane and three other sites at Maam, Croagh Patrick and Newport at the Environmental Engineering and Soil Mechanics Laboratories at NUI, Galway. In the laboratory tests the researchers varied the slope and simulated the type of soil disturbance caused by sheep traffic. They found that annual peat sediment losses at the Leenane hill farm averaged 278 kg per hectare with a stocking rate of 0.9 Scottish Blackface ewes per hectare. In the laboratory trials, the virgin peats at Leenane and Maam were very resistant to erosion, while virgin peats from both Newport and Croagh Patrick were erodible. According to the researchers, this study suggests that overstocking, primarily through excessive sheep traffic damaging the peat and weathering of shallow peat, increases the likelihood of erosion. Removal of vegetation, per se, by grazing has less impact on erosion because of the strength of the peat's fibrous top layer.For hill peat farming, the sustainable sheep-stocking rate depends on the proportion and strategic use of greenland available. Under the management system at Leenane, this stocking rate is 0.9 ewes per hectare. To reduce erosion, sheep access areas and corridors should be changed from time to time. If heavily treaded with little vegetation, these areas should be fenced off to allow for recovery of the peat surface and re-establishment of vegetation. The research was financed, in part, by European Union Structural Funding through Teagasc. The IECA, founded in 1972, is a non-profit professional organisation, with members in 56 countries around the world who are dedicated to minimising accelerated soil erosion. This is the tenth year of the annual IECA Environmental Excellence Awards programme. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418
Monday, 12 March 2001
Release date: 12 March, 2001 Ultra-fast laser facility puts Galway Centre at thecutting edge of Technology The National Centre for Laser Applications (NCLA) NUI, Galway has just opened a new state-of-the-art laser processing facility. The new laboratory is built around a femto-second laser system, supplied by Clark MXR of the US. This is only one of four similar systems installed in laboratories around Europe and places the NCLA at the forefront of the new science of ultra-fast laser processing of materials. "This new laser will allow us to provide this cutting-edge technology to Irish companies for the first time", according to Dr Gerard O Connor, manager of the NCLA. "The first industrial research project based on this new technology has just been agreed between the NCLA and a leading global manufacturer of micro-components." The NCLA is Ireland s centre of excellence in laser technology, working closely with Irish industry on the development of new production tools and techniques based on laser and optical systems. Laser technology is successfully employed in a large number of industries, from drilling and cutting of engineering materials, to precision marking and welding of advanced polymers. "Lasers are also a key enabling technology in the automation of high precision industrial processes, " explains Dr. O Connor. "Many Irish companies, both indigenous and multi-national, in sectors ranging from electronics to medical devices, benefit significantly from the improved product quality, greater efficiency and higher throughput, which laser tooling can provide". The medical device manufacturing sector is one of the most active in the uptake of laser technology and the NCLA provides much support in terms of research and development services to this sector and runs a successful conference each year for this industry. Galway is now acknowledged as the European Centre for medical device manufacturing, with many thousands employed in companies such as Boston Scientific and Medtronic AVE. Femto-second lasers are an exciting new technology in the field of materials processing applications. "The technology is based on the generation of a stream of extremely short, high intensity light pulses, each lasting for only a few hundred femto-seconds. (A femto-second is equal to 10-15 of a second, or a million-billionth of a second!)," explains Dr. O Connor. "The key benefits of such ultra-short pulses lie in their ability to deposit energy into materials in a very short time interval, offering significant advantages over conventional laser sources in high-precision applications such as micro-machining, micro-drilling and ultra-precise cutting." Materials processing with femto-second lasers is also largely independent of the optical properties of the material, which opens up the possibility of processing transparent materials like glasses and highly reflective and conductive materials such as aluminium and copper which have traditionally been unsuitable for laser machining. "Femto-second lasers are facilitating 21st century advances in science and technology, enabling the machining of the smallest precision features in biological and man-made materials," according to Dr. Jonathan Magee, a senior engineer at the NCLA. As the energy is transferred from the laser beam into the material, the temperature of the material rises rapidly above its boiling point, where it vapourises. This process is called ablation. "With conventional laser processing techniques, the heat is conducted quickly away from the absorption region before ablation occurs, leading to melting of the material over a larger area. This results in a lower precision and quality of the laser processed parts," says Dr. Magee. The femtosecond system located at NUI, Galway consists of three laser sources in a single table-top system. These lasers are referred to as the semiconductor seed laser, the YAG pump laser and the titanium-sapphire amplifier laser. The system will deliver up to one thousand ultra-short pulses per second and the duration of the pulse can be varied from 180 to 1000 femtoseconds. "This is an exciting development for the NCLA and we look forward to giving many Irish companies the opportunity to develop new products and processes using this new facility" says Dr. O Connor. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, Tel. 091 750418
Friday, 6 April 2001
Release date: 6 April, 2001 Presentation of Scoláireachtaí na nGéanna Fiáine in NUI, Galway GAELOILIÚINT, the Council for Life-long Gaelic Learning, have presented six Scholarships to students of the Higher Diploma in Education as Gaeilge, in NUI, Galway today (Friday 6 April, 2001). The scholarships have been presented in memory and in honour of Ireland s Wild Geese i.e. the citizens of Ireland who, although they may have had to exile abroad, always strove to further the Irish cause, a tradition which exists to this day. The scholarships, valued at £600 each, were presented by Doctor Dónall Ó Baoill, Professor of Irish Studies in Queen s University, Belfast and Chairperson of GAELOILIÚINT. Each recipient will donate £100 of the scholarship to the Gaelscoil of their choice. The ceremony took place in Áras na Gaeilge, NUI, Galway today at 2.30 p.m. The recipients of the scholarships are: Adrian Ó Brádaigh, Offaly Máire Bríd Breathnach, Ros Muc, Co. Galway Yvonne Ní Chomnraí, Tuam, Co. Galway Fiona Ní Chualáin, Carna, Co. Galway Mícheál Ó Mealláin, Newcastle, Galway Gráinne Máire Ní Fhlannabhra, Grattan Park, Galway This year s scholarships are named after Irish Ambassadors, some famous, some not, some living, some who have passed away, all pillars of Irish citizenship be it abroad or at home, with little or no recognition or thanks. Their endeavours furthered the Irish language, culture, politics and community: Douglas Hyde, scholar and politician, founder of the Gaelic League and first Irish President Anne Devlin, A Dubliner who spent many years of her life, especially during the Famine, helping to clothe and feed the poor and downtrodden Peig Sayers, a noble and exemplary lady who needs no introduction Michael & Pearl Flannery, based in New York - they too espoused the cause of the poor George Harrison, also worked out of New York as an active Irish Socialist. George remains a close friend of Nelson Mandela Terry Callaghan, now also in New York, Terry was personal Secretary to the late Cardinal Tomás Ó Fiaich. She continues to work quietly and diligently for the Irish language and people. "All these Wild Geese have, during their lifetime displayed an unusually high degree of diligence and vision through their personal and public work" states Dr. Dónall Ó Baoill. "They provided guidance and moral leadership to the community around them in a quiet steadfast way by the very example they gave. I have absolutely no doubt that such pioneers continue to come through our Irish Universities today, such as the young recipients of our scholarships, who will, in due course, achieve still greater things for our language and people" ENDS Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway Tel: 091-750418
Monday, 2 April 2001
Release date: 2 April, 2001 Demands of Out-Of-Hours Care seriously restrict Family and Social Life of Rural GPs - NUI Galway Study General practitioners in rural Ireland express grave concerns about their lack of time off and complain that the large proportion of time committed to out-of-hours care greatly infringes on their social and family life. A qualitative study on the experiences of rural general practitioners of the provision of out-of-hours care, conducted by the Departments of General Practice and Psychology at NUI, Galway, has just been published in the British Journal of General Practice, the world s premier academic general practice journal. The study was carried out by Mrs. Nuala Cuddy (Health Psychologist, currently working as researcher in the Department of General Practice at NUI, Galway), under the supervision of Ms Anne Marie Keane (Lecturer at the Department of Psychology at NUI, Galway;) and Professor Andrew Murphy (Professor of General Practice at NUI, Galway). This is the first comprehensive research to qualitatively explore the attitudes of rural general practitioners to out-of-hours work. Although general practitioners expressed general satisfaction with their work, including the satisfaction they experienced from helping to make people better and providing comfort for the terminally ill in a small rural community, Nuala Cuddy reports that the demands of out-of-hours care is one of most stressful aspects of their job. "While they accept that it s part of the service they provide, the GPs believe there s far too much of it, and it places unreasonable restrictions on both themselves and their families", she said. Closely linked with restrictions was the irritation general practitioners experienced by what some described as constant interruptions and unrealistic patients expectations of their doctor. "Patients calling to their door and sleep interruptions were viewed as particularly stressful", said Nuala Cuddy. "Older general practitioners found these especially trying." She went on to say that one general practitioner remarked, 'They know I m off, but people think I am just there at home and it s only me… they don t realise there are another thousand people who think it is only me'!The researchers point out that 'a persistent theme throughout the research was the negative impact out-of-hours care provision could have on family life. Many male participants, in particular, expressed concern for having to leave so many household and family responsibilities to their spouses. Nuala Cuddy noted that 'being on call not only restricted them in their own lives, but also greatly restricted their spouses as they could not pursue any social or occupational activity outside the home in the evenings. One spouse remarked, ''My husband couldn't mind the children if I wanted to go to a night class when he is on call… he couldn't even mind them while I go to Mass ! Most general practitioners had difficulty in getting locums. Nuala Cuddy notes that they felt that locums were not interested in coming to rural areas because of the isolation, the work intensity, the larger catchment areas and the smaller volume of private patients' fees compared to urban practices. According to one GP: "Locums just don t want to come to the rural areas; they want the soft pickings of the cities and the towns.' Providing accommodation for locums in some rural areas also proved very difficult. Consequently, GPs and their families were obliged to leave their own homes in order to accommodate locums!. They strongly resented this and viewed it as an enormous infringement on their privacy and family life.In terms of coping with out-of-hours care provision and its consequences, all general practitioners felt that patient education was of paramount importance; however it is sometimes difficult to implement this in a small community. As one general practitioner said: It s so much hassle sometimes trying to educate people. It is often easier to say give me the form and I ll sign it"! Professor Murphy and Ms Keane emphasise that 'the findings of this and other similar studies suggest the need for both individual orientated (e.g., patient education and stress management approaches) and organisational responses (e.g. central provision of regular locum coverage to rural practitioners).' Fundamental organisational changes in the delivery of out-of-hours care, including general practice co-operatives, have recently occurred in the United Kingdom, Denmark and Finland. The first such co-operative was established in Ireland in 1999, with most health board areas now either implementing or organising them. This study describes very clearly why this is happening. It also emphasises why rural general practitioners, in particular, must be included in such initiatives. Nuala Cuddy is available for interview on the findings of her research. Ends Information From: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway.
Wednesday, 30 May 2001
Release date: 30 May, 2001 Abortion Issue a Red Herring in International Criminal Court Debate Opponents of the referendum authorising Ireland to ratify the Statute of the International Criminal Court are misinformed about the content of the treaty when they suggest it may jeopardise Irish law concerning abortion, says Professor William A. Schabas, Director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights, which is based at National University of Ireland, Galway. "The Court is empowered to prosecute "forced pregnancy" as a crime against humanity", explained Professor Schabas. The term is further defined as "the unlawful confinement of a woman forcibly made pregnant, with the intent of affecting the ethnic composition of any population or carrying out other grave violations of international law". Those drafting the Statute had in mind atrocities committed in concentration camps in the former Yugoslavia. The provision represents a consensus that resulted from negotiations involving several states with a particular interest in the abortion question, including the Holy See, Ireland and Malta, noted Professor Schabas. During the referendum debate, adversaries of the Statute have suggested that the provision might be used to attack countries like Ireland where access to abortion is strictly controlled. But out of respect for the sensibilities of countries like Ireland, the Statute of the International Criminal Court also declares: "This definition shall not in any way be interpreted as affecting national laws relating to pregnancy." "The referendum challenge based on the abortion question is ill-informed and simply wrong," said Professor Schabas. Professor Schabas is an internationally-recognized expert on the International Criminal Court and was a delegate to the 1998 Rome Conference at which the Statute of the Court was adopted. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway
Monday, 28 May 2001
Release date: 28 May, 2001 Human Rights Expert calls for support for the two other Referendums While most attention has been paid to the ratification of the Treaty of Nice on 7th June, two other referendums will also take place on that day. These provide for a constitutional amendment approving of the International Criminal Court and prohibiting introduction of the death penalty. "These two referendums, which raise very important human rights concerns, appear to have been marginalised by public debate about the Nice Treaty", said Professor William A. Schabas, director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights. Professor Schabas explained that the Centre, located at National University of Ireland, Galway, is concerned that public opinion be properly sensitised to the importance of the abolition of capital punishment and support for the International Criminal Court. "Ireland appears to be the first country in the world to have such a referendum on capital punishment", said Professor Schabas. "Although capital punishment has been abolished in Ireland for many years, the constitutional referendum will prevent capricious legislators from reintroducing it", he explained. The recent debate in the Oireachtas on the death penalty referendum indicated virtual unanimity. Only one TD spoke in favour of capital punishment, but his arguments were antiquated and out of step with the current debate. He insisted on the death penalty's alleged deterrent value. But virtually all experts now agree that compared with detention in prison, capital punishment offers no measurable additional deterrent value."The deterrence thesis has been abandoned even by capital punishment's fervent advocates in the United States", noted Professor Schabas. A recent poll shows that even the American public no longer believes in deterrence. "If the public doesn't believe it deters, then who exactly is being deterred?" he asked.Internationally, the recent success of abolitionism has been dramatic. In 1989, Amnesty International published figures showing 100 states still retained the death penalty while 80 had abolished it in one form or another. This year, the Secretary-General of the United Nations reported that 123 states have abolished capital punishment, and only 70 still use it. "Within the past decade, Russia dropped capital punishment as a condition for joining the Council of Europe and South Africa eliminated it by judgement of its new Constitutional Court. Only last week the Ukraine abolished capital punishment", added Professor Schabas. "Abolitionism also now prevails in Latin America and much of Africa". "A successful Irish referendum on capital punishment will have international repercussions," said Professor Schabas. "It will testify to evolving public opinion in a mature, progressive society. It may also give a friendly nudge to the Americans, who are doing a lot of soul-searching on the question right now." "But if Ireland is in the forefront on the death penalty, it is seriously dragging its heals with respect to the International Criminal Court", said Professor Schabas. Already, thirty-two countries have ratified the Rome Statute, which will come into force with the sixtieth ratification, likely to take place within the next twelve months. "Although Irish diplomats have been very supportive of the Court", said Professor Schabas, "it has taken three years since adoption of the Rome Statute for the referendum to be held. Assuming it is successful, Ireland will still need to adopt legislation to permit co-operation with the Court before it can ratify the Statute. "It is extremely important that implementing legislation be adopted without delay. Otherwise Ireland will not be one of the original parties when the Court is established, and will not be able to nominate a judge", Professor Schabas warned. The Irish Centre for Human Rights, at the National University of Ireland, Galway, is engaged in teaching, research and advocacy relating to human rights within Ireland and internationally. Professor is available for interview on both referendums. End For more information:Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418
Tuesday, 15 May 2001
Release date: 15 May 2001 Ireland's winning industrial formula protects economy against effects of US downturn Fears that the Celtic Tiger economy will be severely affected by the downturn in the US economy are unfounded according to research carried out in NUI, Galway and just published by the OECD. Irish Government policy of creating 'clusters' of similar type industries and embedding foreign firms within the local economy has proved to be a winning formula in the development and sustainability of Ireland's extraordinary economic metamorphosis,' says Professor Roy Green of the Department of Management at NUI, Galway and leader of the research team. The research project is entitled, Boundaryless Cluster: Information and Communications Technology in Ireland.What has happened in Galway in the 1990s, according to Professor Green, is a microcosm of the success of Ireland as a whole in the information and communications technology (ICT) sector, as well as healthcare, financial services and pharmaceuticals. The emergence of a powerful software sector in Galway in the wake of the Digital closure of 1993, resulted from a combination of measures to attract foreign investment and build local supply chains into a 'boundaryless' cluster. 'This regional cluster is boundaryless in the sense that its global character defies traditional stereotypes of domestic rivalry and collaboration,' explains Professor Green. There are at present sixty ICT companies in the Galway region. "Although Ireland is not completely protected against market conditions, the integration of investors within local clusters, the emphasis on linkages within research and educational institutions and the shift of firms higher up the value chain, all militate against closure or relocation", says Professor Green. The main findings of Professor Green's research include the following: The globalised nature of Irish ICT, the influence of the multinational sector and the niche operations of indigenous firms suggest the need for a new, more outward-looking approach to the advent of the "boundaryless" cluster. The presence of at least one large ICT operation provides a useful catalyst and focus for cluster development. This presence affords the opportunity to build local capacity in new technologies and skills both within the operation itself and more widely in the emerging cluster through outsourcing, vertical supply chains and ultimately, horizontal inter-firm linkages. The development of the regional skills base is cumulative and parallels the scale and sophistication of the industry cluster, whose growth patterns are themselves path dependent. The Galway experience suggests that appropriate regional business support structures are the final major local ingredient in successful cluster development. Without such structures, skilled personnel would be unemployed or underemployed, or alternatively would emigrate. Enterprise Ireland's role in developing an indigenous, entrepreneur-driven technology sector has been complimented with a newly-announced commitment to create 'clusters of new knowledge-intensive enterprises in regional centres'. The instrument of intervention will be a series of technology hubs known as "Webworks", whose task will be to 'generate a critical mass of high potential start-ups in the regions – companies that are high R&D and export performers. The first Webworks Facility is to be established in Galway. The sustainability of the ICT cluster will derive from constant innovation, which in turn must be based on leading-edge research and research training. Professor Green says that the cluster dynamic is supplied in the case of Irish regions by 'a unique mix of inter-firm collaboration, interaction and rivalry, by the development and constant replenishment of common pools of skilled labour, by the localised support of research and educational institutions, by the commitment of local business organisations and unions and by the strategies of national and regional development agencies'.Professor Green is available for interview on his research Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091-750418
Friday, 29 June 2001
Release date: Friday, 29 June, 2001 Conferring of Honorary Degrees at NUI, Galway NUI, Galway has honoured five people who have made remarkable and very distinctive contributions to contemporary Ireland and whose interests and achievements are reflected in the life and work of the university. Honorary degrees were conferred on the following at 3.30 p.m., today (Friday 30 June) Noel Dorr, Former Secretary-General, Department of Foreign Affairs. (Degree of Doctor of Laws) As one of the most outstanding civil servants in the history of this state, Noel Dorr has had a long and distinguished career in the Department of Foreign Affairs. He has held the following positions: Permanent Representative to UN, New York 1980; Irish Representative on UN Security Council 1981-1982 (and President of the Security Council in April 1981and August 1982); Ambassador of Ireland London 1983-1987, and Secretary General, Department of Foreign Affairs, Dublin, 1987 until his retirement in 1995. The esteem in which he was held is reflected in the roles accorded to him both at home and abroad – in negotiating the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1995, in the drafting of EU Treaties, and as Government representative on the Carlson committee on the reform of the United Nations. Seán Ó Mórdha, Film maker (Degree of Doctor of Literature) His many documentaries of Irish writers including James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, Oscar Wilde, Seán Ó Riada, Séamus Heaney, John McGahern and Thomas Kinsella, have established themselves as milestones of modern Irish cultural history. His most recent television series, Seven Ages, traces the history of the Irish State from its foundation in 1921 to the late 1980s. In honouring him today, the National University of Ireland is recognising not only his individual talents, but also paying tribute to the ethos and ideal of public service broadcasting which underlie so much of Seán Ó Mórdha's remarkable corpus of achievement both within RTÉ and as an independent producer. Derek Mahon, Poet. (Degree of Doctor of Literature) Derek Mahon is widely regarded as a poet whose work constitutes the highest and most enduring aesthetic achievement of contemporary Irish writing. In the judgement of The New Yorker magazine, Mahon's poems exhibit 'astonishing excellence'. His fellow poet, Eamonn Grennan describes Mahon's styles as 'wry, speculative, eloquent, debonair'. Many of his poems are epistles, verse letters addressed to an intimate community of readers. Yet, this poetry is never merely personal: it is, instead, full of voices from older traditions that Mahon catches in a modern glare. He has also authored a number of translated works and has been the recipient of many prestigious literary awards. Angela Barone, Lecturer and Author (Degree of Doctor of Literature In 1987 she was appointed Director of the Italian Institute in Dublin and Cultural Attaché to the Italian Embassy, positions she served with exemplary distinction until her retirement in 1994. Her task was to promote Italian language and culture in Ireland, in co-operation with universities, schools, teachers of Italian and the Department of Education. She has made an incisive cross-cultural contribution during her time in this country. Dr. Barone also developed her deep interest in Irish by learning the language and has translated the work of many Irish authors from both Irish and English to Italian. Professor Cherif Bassiouni, Writer and Jurist (Degree of Doctor of Laws In the wake of the Balkan conflict in 1992, the UN Security Council set up a Commission of Experts to investigate war crimes. Cherif Bassiouni took over the direction of the Commission, which paved the way for the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. His work more than any other single person is credited with the creation of the International Criminal Court. Cherif Bassiouni has been a professor of law at DePaul University, in Chicago and is author of many books in the fields of international human rights and international criminal law. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091-750418
Wednesday, 20 June 2001
Release date: 20 June, 2001 NUI, Galway Health Promotion Conference to address issues of Social Capital The Department of Health Promotion, National University of Ireland, Galway in association with the Western, North Western and Mid-Western Health Boards will host a Conference on Health Promotion and Social Capital, on Thursday and Friday, 28 and 29 June, 2001 at the National University of Ireland, Galway. One of the current concepts creating interest among health promoters is social capital. The concept of social capital is based on the assumption that communities with good communication networks and supports, as well as a positive cultural identity, will enhance both individual and community well-being and hence promote health. However, like all new concepts there remains questions and paradoxes to be explored. The Conference programme will include Plenary Sessions which will feature keynote speakers from Ireland, United States and Germany looking at accounts of social capital: the mixed health effects of personal communities and voluntary groups, health and inequalities, social exchange and health, and a proposed sociological framework. Tom Healy, Department of Education and Science, Ireland will open the forum with an exploration of the concept of social capital and related concepts. He will go on to consider the findings, focusing on health and personal well being impacts of a recently completed international survey on social capital which he undertook at the OECD. The second keynote speaker is Professor Stephen Kunitz from the Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, University of Rochester, New York. His paper will focus on the use of the concept of social capital in the fields of public health and health promotion. He will argue that empirical data suggests that social capital has mixed effects, sometimes associated with improvements in health and at other times with diminished health. Professor Brian Nolan and Dr. Richard Layte, ESRI (Economic and Social Research Institute), will present a joint paper on Health Inequalities in Ireland. They will summarise what is known about the overall extent of health inequalities in Ireland, highlight the serious gaps in our knowledge, set out the agenda for research to fill those gaps and discuss key issues in framing a policy response. Professor Johannes Siegrist, Department of Medical Sociology, University of Dusseldorf, Germany will deliver a paper on "Social differentials of adult morbidity: the role of effort-reward imbalances at work", which will focus on exposure to a stressful psychosocial environment as one of several explanations of social differentials of morbidity in adult life. He will look at place, social exchange and health and discuss the health policy implications and scientific challenges from demonstrated results. The Symposium will present progress of work undertaken to-date by The HRB Research Unit on Health Status and Health Gain, which was established at the Centre for Health Promotion Studies in NUI, Galway. Professor Cecily Kelleher will present an overview of Health and Social Gain in Ireland, while Professor Andrew Murphy, Department of General Practice, NUI, Galway will focus on Primary Care: Urban and Rural comparisons. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418
Wednesday, 13 June 2001
Release date: 13 June, 2001 Breakthrough for Communities of the West - University President accepts Taoiseach's challenge on Social Capital The President of National University of Ireland, Galway, Dr. Iognáid Ó Muircheartaigh today (Wednesday, 13 June) announced a major breakthrough in University support for the local communities of the West of Ireland. Entitled the New Economy Initiative , NUI, Galway in partnership with Kiltimagh community in Co. Mayo, is proposing a radically new approach to address the challenges of isolation, decline and disadvantage, increasingly prevalent not just in rural but also in urban communities. Dr. Ó Muircheartaigh explained that the initiative is a two-way process with communities, to generate and disseminate knowledge and support in order to improve the quality of life for all. "What is unique about the new approach and why it will succeed" he said, " is that it will bring mutual benefits. Both NUI, Galway and Kiltimagh will gain through Experiential Learning Programmes, as students and staff engage voluntarily with communities, business and the public sector." Internationally, there is widespread concern with a break down in community values in developed countries and unacceptable levels of isolation, loneliness and social disintegration, to which Ireland is not immune. The Taoiseach recently spoke of the importance of building social capital and putting "communities at the centre of our debates". Dr. Ó Muircheartaigh said that NUI, Galway is accepting the Taoiseach's challenge and will develop and implement social capital systems. President Ó Muircheartaigh explained that like all great innovations, social capital is essentially simple and pragmatic. It makes it worth people s time to be mutually supportive. "Like financial capital, it operates a banking system and rewards people through time-credits. A bank of knowledge, skills, experience and general help is built up in a community from which people participating can withdraw." There are now more than 1000 social capital initiatives worldwide in the USA, Japan and the UK.The President stressed the importance of community spirit, defining it as the sense of belonging to a locality and expressed through mutual support. "Mutual support and cohesion is a major competitive advantage over the pursuit of individualism and the anonymity characteristic of many large urban settlements", he said. "It follows that new social capital systems, which promote mutual support, harnessing the extraordinary power of computers, e-commerce and the Internet, can build social and economic strengths and individual well-being. President Ó Muircheartaigh announced a major developmental strategy estimated to cost £7.9 million over 5 years for which the University is seeking support. This includes: - A Social Capital Banking System at NUI, Galway - Experiential Learning and Accreditation - Grants to local communities for Social Capital Banks - A Chair in New Economics endowed in perpetuity - Building an Outreach Campus in Kiltimagh - Doctoral and Post Doctoral Fellowships and Library Acquisitions. Welcoming the announcement of the New Economy Initiative, Mr Brian Mooney, Chairman, IRD Kiltimagh said: "This provides an exciting and practical approach to the problems facing communities in decline. The four strands of the Initiative shall serve to give a new impetus and importance to the role of communities in deciding their own futures in association with State Agencies and Local Authorities. The overall Initiative should also help overcome the decline in volunteering, exacerbated in part by the Celtic Tiger. This is particularly timely in this, 'The Year of the Volunteer'. The benefits to Community and Rural Development will be manifold. The New Economy Initiative will provide an engine not only for the community sector to pursue their ambitions but also to the State Agencies who will now have a vehicle to work through in each local area, thereby making their role all the more impacting and efficient . "He particularly praised the President and Staff of NUI, Galway whose "dedication and vision of service to the community has been exemplary and visionary throughout the evolution of the project. As a result of the New Economy Initiative, I hope that communities, throughout Ireland, rural and urban, grasp the opportunity to develop into sustainable entities, attractive to the younger generations and that the curse of emigration that we had come to accept, will be banished forever" he concluded. Ends For further details: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Office, NUI, Galway Tel. 091 750418
Wednesday, 6 June 2001
Release date: 6 June, 2001 International Conference highlights the benefits of Supporting Parents in helping troubled children New evidence that direct support to parents is a key ingredient in helping children who are experiencing problems, will be presented at the first International Conference on Family Support Evaluation to be held in Ireland. The two-day conference, which will take place in NUI, Galway tomorrow and Friday (7 and 8 June), will be officially opened by Mary Banotti, MEP. One of the keynote speakers, Dr Kieran McKeown, will deliver a paper on the evaluation of the Irish National Springboard Family Support Programme, a nation-wide set of 15 community based family support projects. Dr. McKeown says that "preventive community based programmes are not just beneficial to the children who attend but also act as a strong source of support to parents". His evaluation report will demonstrate how the Springboard Projects work with children, adolescents and parents, who are experiencing or are likely to experience personal difficulties such as financial problems, early school leaving, parenting problems, and young people with challenging behaviours. Dr McKeown emphasises the importance of early intervention and professionals as key sources of support to families. Speakers from the EU, South Africa, USA and the UK will all echo the importance of more comprehensive research into what works for families in adversity. Dr. Heather Weiss, of the Harvard Family Research Project will speak on Principles of Family Support Evaluation , while Professor Marian Jacobs of South Africa s Child Health Unit, will speak on Making Evaluation central to Building Family Support Provision The conference is particularly timely for the Western Health Board in that Family Support has become a central part of its services, with the number of Family Support projects growing from two in 1995 to twenty two in 2001. Commitment to family support has also been included in the Board s forthcoming strategic plan for children and families. The conference is jointly organised by the Western Health Board; National University of Ireland, Galway; and Family Support Evaluation Network International. "If there is to be a real shift in government policy toward preventative, family support approaches, it will require a commitment to evaluation of all such projects and programmes, said John Canavan, NUI Galway . "Policy change requires strong evidence - this conference is about the means of generating the evidence". "In order to help families and to lessen the cost of expensive forms of care for children, not alone is there a need for more family support services, but also clearer research into how best to support families in ways that make a difference for them," said Pat Dolan, Western Health Board. "This conference is a forum for discovering ways in which best practice in working with children and families can be identified and validated," he said. More than 250 delegates, including a wide range of professionals who work with families, policy makers, researchers and evaluators in Ireland and abroad, are expected to attend the conference. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418 Miriam Stack, Director of Communications, Western Health Board. Tel. 091 775474
Thursday, 26 July 2001
Release date: Tuesday 10 July, 2001 Report recommends New Approaches to Water Quality Monitoring in Western Irish Lakes "The ecological integrity of the flora and fauna in the country's lakes can provide an early warning system for impending problems in lake water quality and when used in conjunction with systematic analyses of water chemistry and monitoring of nutrient inputs, help in the protection of Irish lakes", according to Dr. Kieran McCarthy of NUI, Galway's Department of Zoology and author of a new environmental report. The results of the three-year research programme on six large western lakes (Loughs Carromore, Conn, Cullen, Carra, Mask and Corrib), undertaken by NUI, Galway in partnership with the Central Fisheries Board and Aquafact Ltd, have just been published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Report is entitled, Investigation of Eutrophication Processes in the Littoral Zones of Western Irish Lakes.The report describes research on a variety of aspects of the lakes, including their planktonic algae, submerged plants, aquatic insects, sediments, water circulation and fishes. The studies have shown that though localised signs of pollution were detected in all the water-bodies, and significant enrichment was noted in Loughs Carromore, Conn and Cullen, the lakes of the Corrib catchment have so far escaped the more serious effects of eutrophication that can be noted in most of Ireland's other large lakes. The main conclusions of the report were: Though water quality in the western lakes was generally better than some previous press reports suggested, three of the six lakes studied showed signs of eutrophication and localised signs of enrichment were evident in all of them. Many unique features of the lake ecosystems are being lost (e.g. Arctic Char are now gone from Loughs Conn and Corrib), due to the combined effects of environmental deterioration and the introduction of species not native to the lakes. Conservation of the unique plant and animal communities of the lakes is important and maintaining their ecological integrity can serve to ensure their use for domestic water supply, angling and other recreational purposes. Dr. McCarthy expressed concern that introductions of non-native aquatic invertebrates and fish parasites could adversely affect the many interesting species of aquatic plants and animals that are typical of the lakes. "Studies on these unique elements of the lakes' communities are important and ensuring their survival might be one of the best ways of guarding the lakes against early stages of enrichment and other undesired environmental changes", he said. Welcoming the continuing support shown by local anglers for the University's freshwater research programmes, Dr McCarthy pointed out that the role they played in reporting pollution events and other unwelcome changes to our lakes was a vital one. "The long hours that anglers spend on or near the lakes or their in-flowing streams and rivers, provides them with ideal opportunities to observe fish and wildlife habitat conditions", he said. "However, anglers' contributions to lake water quality monitoring could be extended and more effectively linked to the work of the fishery boards and long-term EPA surveys. Anglers could systematically record localised algal blooms and other visible evidence of fish habitat degradation. They can also be effective environmental guardians by helping to keep out unwanted species introductions". Irish anglers have in recent years been active in preventing the spread of the zebra mussel from the Shannon lakes to the great trout fishing lakes in the West. Ireland's lakes are now home to an increasing variety of alien species, like North American crustaceans and Japanese fish parasites. Some of these species introductions may in time cause unexpected changes in the lake ecosystems, to the detriment of fisheries and maybe even, like the Shannon's zebra mussel invaders, to water quality parameters. The report also indicates that dense coarse-fish populations can affect lake ecology and strongly recommends that the unique fish community of Lough Mask deserves special protection from further fish species introductions. Unfortunately, roach have found their way from Lough Corrib to Lough Mask in the past few years and concern is being expressed about the effects they may have on the currently healthy char stocks there. Also, roach and gradual environmental change may result in the loss of other unusual inhabitants of the deep cool clear waters of the lake. Lough Mask is home to such species as the blind white crustacean, Niphargus kochianus hibernicus, a creature more typical of subterranean waters and not found in any other Irish lake bottoms. Also found in the lake are rare insects, like the non-biting midge Corynocera ambigua, that are thought invaded its waters soon after the retreat of glacial ice sheets over 10,000 years ago. Studying and attempting to protect these interesting lake dwelling invertebrates may, according to Dr. McCarthy help focus attention on the need to guard against even apparently minor changes in the ecology of the lakes. The main recommendations of the report were: Nutrient inputs to the lakes and the variations in chlorophyll levels, and other water quality parameters, should be monitored more systematically. A more comprehensive ecological approach to monitoring the lakes should be adopted, involving new biomonitoring techniques discussed in the report. should be paid to all adverse environmental changes, not simply nutrient enrichment. Avoidance of species introductions to the lakes, including transfers of coarse fish from other parts of Ireland, is important. Research on the unique elements of the flora and fauna of the lakes is recommended as these ecologically sensitive species may provide early warning signs of environmental change not yet affecting more abundant and widespread aquatic plants and animals. This project was part-funded by the European Regional development Fund through the Operational Programme for Environmental Services, 1994-1999. The NUI, Galway research team has recently started a new inter-disciplinary study of Lough Corrib involving co-operation between the University's Departments of Zoology, Botany, Chemistry, Hydrology and Geology, funded by the Higher Education Authority, as part of a major programme of environmental research linked to the establishment on campus of a new Environmental Change Institute. The recent purchase of a new research boat for the Lough Corrib study is, according to Dr Mc Carthy, an indication of the university's commitment to long-term studies of the lakes in the Corrib/ Mask system. "NUI, Galway is uniquely located, among Irish universities, for such limnological research, as its riverside campus is just a few miles down stream from Lough Corrib and research workers can easily travel directly from their laboratories to the lake. Use of the new boat will enable researchers to further develop the new lake monitoring protocols recommended in their report now released by the EPA and to enable young researchers to learn about the intricacies of freshwater ecology on one of Ireland's most beautiful water-bodies", he said. ENDS Tel. 091 750418
Thursday, 26 July 2001
Release date: 17 July, 2001 NUI, Galway Research Shows Serious Decline in Eel Stocks In Ireland over 1,000 tonnes of eels, valued at £5 million, are captured annually. Most are exported to the continent, in particular to Holland and Germany, where eel is more of a delicacy than salmon and priced accordingly. The eel is generally regarded as a typical member of the fish communities that inhabit Ireland s lakes and rivers. Frequently, scientific surveys have shown it to be among the more abundant species present in lowland river reaches and coastal streams. Indeed, in some isolated western Irish streams, like several on Clare Island, Co. Mayo, it may be the only fish species present. Ease of natural recruitment to Ireland s inland waters by juvenile eels is thought to be a major factor in the success of the species here. Young eels that travelled thousands of miles across the Atlantic on the Gulf Stream current from spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea, have in the past migrated into Ireland s rivers in spring and early summer each year in large numbers. However, the situation is deteriorating and according to Dr Kieran McCarthy, of NUI Galway s Department of Zoology, a steady decline has been recorded in the quantities of elvers (young eels), entering Irish rivers. The River Shannon eel stock has experienced a steady decline in natural recruitment over the past three decades. The numbers of juvenile eels trapped at Ardnacrusha for stocking the Shannon lakes, has dropped from a peak of almost 7 tonnes in 1979, to an average of less than half a tonne in the past decade. Similarly, the numbers captured leaving the river as mature silver eels, migrating to their spawning area in the Sargasso Sea, has declined from an average of 28 tonnes per year in the 1980s and early 1990s to an average of 10 tonnes since the mid 1990s. Although natural recruitment of juveniles to the river is the principal cause of the decline, other threats to the species include water quality problems and the spread of oriental eel parasites, accidentally introduced in recent years. The serious decline in juvenile eel numbers has also been observed elsewhere in Europe and the eel fisheries of countries from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean area are being seriously affected. According to Dr McCarthy, "the available evidence suggests that the decline in juvenile eel populations arriving in European coastal zones is due to climatic effects on ocean currents. The Gulf stream, to which Ireland owes its mild climate, is also very important in marine ecology. Declines in eel, Atlantic salmon and other migratory fish, may be due to the changes in oceanic circulation patterns caused by global warming". Having arrived safely in Ireland s rivers, eels often encounter many obstacles, which prevent them reaching lakes where most of the eel fishing takes place. Dr. McCarthy suggests that in order to facilitate their up-river journey, eel ladders should be installed at obstacles in rivers, which would help the eels on their way just as special fish passes in many Irish rivers, enable salmon to move upstream. Irish eel researchers and fishery managers have played a pioneering role in the development of eel stock monitoring protocols and stock enhancement measures. At present, most of the eels caught in Ireland are from the intensively managed Lough Neagh fishery. It has been calculated that the productivity of our eel fisheries could be doubled or trebled, through scientifically managed stocking programmes. However, this will not be possible if the overall European stocks of eels are not conserved. Sustainable exploitation of eel fisheries requires development of an international management plan. At a meeting in NUI, Galway last week, scientists from Sweden, Germany, Belgium, France, and Portugal discussed with eel researchers from Galway and Northern Ireland, the possible ways in which this goal might be reached. They called on national government agencies, including the Department of Marine and Natural Resources, to encourage the EU to provide on-going support for research on eels. ENDS Tel: 091-750418
Wednesday, 19 September 2001
Release date: 19 September, 2001 IT Expert emphasises the continuing need for skilled workforce Tánaiste opens £9.5 million IT Building at NUI Galway "Although the IT industry is undoubtedly experiencing difficulties at present, we should not be deflected from creating a highly skilled workforce to take advantage of the economic recovery that will follow the current temporary downturn." That is the strong message from Professor Gerry Lyons, Director of the School of IT in NUI, Galway. Professor Lyons was speaking at the opening of a £9.5 million IT building, which An Tánaiste and Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment, Mary Harney TD, officially opened at the University today (Wednesday, 19 September). Opening the facility the Tánaiste said "Investment in skills and the promotion of close links between third level institutions and industry is central to Ireland s strategy to weather the current downturn in the IT industry". "The experience of Galway shows clearly the effectiveness of this approach. Following the closure of Digital it was the availability of skilled people and the willingness of the education sector to work closely with business that led to the regeneration of the high tech sector in Galway and the creation of the vibrant City that we see today. This investment will ensure that this positive development is sustained into the future," the Tánaiste added. The horrific terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre in New York was not only a human tragedy of enormous proportions but also a body-blow to the American, and by extension the global economy. "However, given the robust, resilient nature of the US business sector, recovery will probably take place much quicker than we can at present forecast", says Professor Lyons. He predicts that further contraction will indeed take place throughout this year, followed by gradual recovery in ICT (Information and Communications Technology) consumer and investor confidence in 2002. Recovery will continue thereafter as excess inventory is replaced with a more market-balanced supply-demand capacity and the rate of innovation increases again. "The IT industry has a high "clockspeed", i.e. a shorter expansion/contraction cycle than most traditional industries", says Professor Lyons. "These are indeed dark days in the aftermath of the US attacks. However, as recovery resumes, it will bring with it a new wave of innovation and Ireland must be in a position to participate in those developments. A reduction in demand for third-level IT programmes this year is short-sighted in Professor Lyons's view. "It takes four years to produce an IT graduate and there is still a supply shortfall in the numbers of these graduates, who do after all not work exclusively in the ICT sector. Their skills are required across all industries, business and public services – in any human or economic activity that relies on computing and communications technology". Professor Lyons also urges development of an indigenous IT sector. "Ireland has a world-wide reputation as a leader in the ICT industry", he says. "However, we must promote more indigenous innovation and creation of ICT businesses that can scale-up to play on an international platform". Israel for instance, which is comparable in size to Ireland, has nearly as many companies listed on NASDAQ as Europe does. Ireland is no longer a low labour cost economy and high volume labour intensive manufacturing operations will increasingly move to Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. Ireland is already becoming established as a post-industrial, information intensive, high-cost, high-skilled economy, much like Switzerland or Sweden. "The only sustainable raw material for such an economy is a highly educated, technologically advanced workforce", says Professor Lyons. "This means not just primary degree graduates in IT, Engineering and Science, but an increasing investment in fourth level graduates - specialists who have completed postgraduate degrees and developed research skills to fuel the indigenous product development industry." Dr. Iognáid Ó Muircheartaigh, President of NUI, Galway said that the new IT Building was a "vote of confidence in the future of IT in Ireland. This sector has brought tremendous success and prosperity to this country in recent years", he said. "It is important that we provide the most modern facilities to enable our students acquire the skills and training required to meet the technological challenges presented in the new millennium." The new building is a major element of the University s £45 million capital development programme, which was launched in 1998. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway Tel. 091-750418
Thursday, 13 September 2001
Release date: 13 September, 2001 University response to US Attacks NUI, Galway shares pain of US students and staff The impact of recent events in the US has been felt globally. NUI, Galway has implemented a range of measures to help the 400 US staff and students at the campus. Students support services such as counselling and chaplaincy have been intensified and a special Ecumenical Prayer service held to reflect the solidarity and support for the US staff and students, many of whom have been affected by the recent events in New York and Washington. The University has also announced that the annual Gala Banquet scheduled to take place on 6 October, has been postponed as a mark of respect to the victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the United States. "The University has an extensive range of links with many institutions and individuals in the US said Professor Ruth Curtis, Vice-President for Development and External Affairs, NUI, Galway. We have collaborative links with many American third level institutions in areas of research, teaching and student exchange. In addition, many of the University's 40,000 graduates live and work in the United States. The University also has close links with US companies based in Galway and the West region. These important relationships, and our US students and staff on campus highlight how we are all brought into close contact with the terrible events of recent days." According to Professor Curtis the University s "main concern right now is for the 400 US students who have registered at NUI, Galway for their Junior Year Abroad programme. Many of these young people are very upset and far from home and the support which we give them at this time is vital. Student counsellors and chaplains have been inundated and have reacted by setting up a Support Centre with facilities including counselling and medical services and a bank of telephones to enable them speak with their friends and relatives in the US. Taking all those factors into account, it was decided it would be inappropriate to hold a celebratory event, such as the Gala Banquet at this time. The annual Gala Banquet is the social highlight of the University calendar, with distinguished guests travelling from many countries, including the US, to renew old acquaintances, mark developments in the University and celebrate alumni achievement. "We are postponing this event, preparations for which were well advanced, to demonstrate our solidarity with the four hundred US students and staff on campus", said Professor Curtis. The Gala Banquet will now take place on Saturday, 2 March, 2002 in the Radisson SAS Hotel. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418. Mobile: 087 2986592
Wednesday, 12 September 2001
Tá lá náisiunta dobhróin fógartha ag an Taoiseach ag éirí as na heachtraí uafáis sna Stáit Aontaithe inné. Dé hAoine, Meán Fómhair 14 an lá atá i gceist, agus tá cinneadh déanta go ndúnfar oifigí uile na hOllscoile an lá sin, agus gcuirfear imeachtaí uile na hOllscoile an lá sin ar ceal. _____________________________ In the light of the declaration by An Taoiseach that Friday, September 14 is to be a national day of mourning arising from the tragic events in the United States yesterday, it has been decided that all offices in the University will be closed on that day, and that all University activities on that day will be cancelled.
Monday, 10 September 2001
Release date: 3rd September, 2001 Advocating the Abolition of the Death Penalty World-wide Abolition of the death penalty is very much at the centre of the international human rights agenda, with major diplomatic initiatives being undertaken by the Council of Europe and the European Union. In June 2001, Ireland s constitution was amended to prohibit capital punishment following a successful referendum. Internationally, however, the principal concern remains the extensive use of the death penalty in the United States and China. In fact, there are still 86 countries which continue to use the death penalty. During 2000, at least 1,457 prisoners were executed and 3,058 people were sentenced to death. Leading international specialists on capital punishment will meet in the Ardilaun House Hotel, Galway, September 21-22, for a symposium on abolition of the death penalty, under the auspices of the Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland, Galway, and the Centre de Recherche sur les Droits de l'Homme, Université Panthéon-Assas Paris II. The conclusions of the conference are to be delivered by Senator Robert Badinter, one of France s leading statesmen, who was Minister of Justice in 1981 when France abolished capital punishment. The conference will also be addressed by Professor William A. Schabas, director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights, who is recognised as one of the leading international authorities on capital punishment, particularly in its international legal dimensions. His two books on the subject have been cited by the United States Supreme Court, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of the Philippines and numerous appellate courts. Other speakers at the conference include academics, international officials and activists involved in work on the subject, in Europe and North America. This conference forms a centre-piece of the strategy of the Irish Centre for Human Rights in advocating the abolition of the death penalty world-wide. Ends Further details from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418
Sunday, 9 September 2001
Release date: Monday, 10 September, 2001 Leading Irish Artists to talk at NUI Galway NUI, Galway will host Talking Through Their Arts, a series of illustrated talks by six major Irish artists between September and December 2001. This initiative follows on from the highly popular Introduction to Contemporary Irish Art series, which the University hosted in Autumn/Winter 2000. The featured artists work in a variety of media including video and new technologies, performance, sculpture, painting etc. and are among the nation's leaders in each of their chosen fields. The general public is once again invited to enjoy these talks which will give voice to the individual creative process and, in so doing, bring to light issues in contemporary Irish art. Each of the artists will survey their own work using slides, discuss their art-making process and share their thoughts on Irish art today. The talks take place fortnightly, on Tuesdays, in the Ó hEocha Theatre, in the Arts Millennium Building, NUI, Galway. Tickets are £3/£2 per session or £15/£10 for a season ticket and are available at the door. The first talk in the series will begin on 25 September. Tuesday 25 September : Nigel Rolfe - Performance Artist Tuesday 9 October : Alanna O'Kelly - Multimedia Artist Tuesday 23 October : Dermot Seymour - Graphic Artist Tuesday 6 November : Gwen O'Dowd - Abstract Painter Tuesday 20 November : Robert Ballagh - Pop Artist / Designer Tuesday 4 December : Eilís O'Connell - Sculptor / Public Art Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway Tel. 091 750418
Thursday, 6 September 2001
Release date: 5 September, 2001 NUI Galway hosts Maximising Performance in Sport Conference Pressure to win at all costs sometimes puts intolerable pressure on those engaged in competitive sport. This is manifested in a variety of ways from excessive training to competing while suffering an injury, to taking banned substances in order to enhance performance. A seminar, which will take place in NUI, Galway on Saturday 15 September, 2000, will address these and other issues relating to the demanding world of competitive sport. Among the guest speakers will be Kenny McMillan, Sports Physiologist with Glasgow Celtic Football Club. He will focus on the role of the Sports Physiologist at a professional football club and will highlight the growing importance of physiology in professional football and the move away from more traditional methods of training and preparation. Mr. McMillan will discuss the main aspects of the Sports Physiologist¹s role, which include fitness assessment, fitness conditioning, monitoring of training workload and intensity, rehabilitation and research. The seminar is being co-ordinated by Dr Aideen Henry who is Sports Medicine Physician and lecturer in Sports and Exercise Physiology at NUI, Galway and by Dr John Newell, Lecturer in Statistics at NUI, Galway. Dr Henry works with the Connaught Rugby Team as Team Doctor. One of the topics Dr. Henry will address is the controversial use of Creatine and the fact that some studies show improvement, particularly in repeat sprint performance in athletes who take high doses of Creatine. However Dr. Henry will present the arguments against Creatine use which include weight gain; potential kidney damage; the threat to endogenous Creatine production; the fact that long-term side effects are not known; and Creatine is not FDA approved. In terms of endogenous Creatine production, Dr. Henry explains that the dose taken by athletes is 20 times the normal dietary intake. It is equivalent to five steaks a day, then the internal Creatine production is switched off. We do not know if this is reversible when Creatine supplementation is stopped. Dr Henry will also discuss problems encountered by girls and women in sport and in particular the Female Athlete Triad. This condition, first defined in 1993, includes disordered eating, amenorrhea (absence of normal periods for more than three consecutive months) and osteoporosis. The cause of female athlete triad stems from the internal and external pressures on girls and young women to achieve and maintain an unrealistically low body weight. Other speakers at the seminar include Mary Walsh, chartered physiotherapist, who has been associated with the Irish Underage International Rugby Team, Irish Hockey Teams and Inter-County and club Hurling and Football teams. She will discuss methods of injury rehabilitation and prevention. Dr Alan Ringland will speak on Psychological Techniques to improve Performance . Dr Ringland is Sports psychologist with Warrington Rugby League Club, the Lawn Tennis Association, the Irish Paralympic Boccia Team and the Cavan Football and Limerick Hurling teams. Maria Keane is a Sports Nutritionist based in Limerick Regional Hospital, will speak on Nutrition for Optimal performance . For registration and further information, please telephone 091 524411, ext. 2761; http://stokes.nuigalway.ie/~jnewell/max Dr. Aideen Henry is available for interview on her conference paper and the programme content. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418
Wednesday, 31 October 2001
Release date: 31 October 2001 Irish Centre for Human Rights to lead major EU-China Human Rights Project Human Rights abuses in China have long been a matter of international concern but there was a perception that world opinion was a matter of indifference to the Chinese authorities. In recent years however, China has opened up considerably to the outside world and with that openness comes a recognition of the necessity to address and improve the country's human rights record. The Irish Centre for Human Rights, which is based in NUI, Galway will coordinate a €1.5 million three-year project, financed by the European Commission, to promote the ratification and implementation of the international human rights covenants in China. The programme involves fifteen European human rights centres, one from each member state, and the same number of Chinese institutions. A wide range of human rights issues will be addressed, including capital punishment, torture, the right to education, labour standards and the right to a fair trial. The working languages of the project are English, French and Chinese. "In the last few years China has shown increasing willingness to accept the role of International human rights monitoring mechanisms," says Professor William Schabas, director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights. "Consequently, it has ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and is preparing to ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It is essential however, that China's commitments go beyond simply formalistic gestures and that they be given substance. The idea behind the EU-China project is that European human rights specialists can contribute to the process of human rights monitoring in China by adding their expertise," he said. A series of academic seminars, as well as exchanges and internships, are at the core of the project. The initial seminar will be held in Galway, at the Irish Centre for Human Rights, where the project secretariat will be located on a permanent basis. Themes of the seminars are to be determined by the network steering committee, which is composed of the Irish Centre for Human Rights, the University of Paris II, the University of Essex, the University of Milan and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Aside from the seminars there is an important component in the training of Chinese human rights practitioners and this will include lawyers, academics and government officials in various aspects of human rights law and practice. Professor Schabas acknowledges that China's concern about International Human Rights standards can be understood in the context of the country's desire to be a full player in international affairs, including the development of economic links and cultural manifestations such as the Olympic Games 2008. "There is now an openness within China to international human rights that everybody who is familiar with the situation has noticed," says Professor Schabas, who visited Beijing last May as part of developing the current project. "It was very clear that debate evolves very, very rapidly in China on the subject of human rights," he says. "Everybody agreed that the kind of discussions and the level of exchange we had in May could not have taken place two or three years ago. Circumstances are more welcoming to this kind of activity than they have been at any time in the past," he said. "This is the first major research grant obtained by the Irish Centre for Human Rights since its inauguration in February 2000," said Professor William Schabas. "We are honoured to have been given such responsibility in this important field, and look forward to our role as a focal point for EU initiatives with respect to human rights in China." Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI Galway. Tel. 091 750418 Note on Professor William A. Schabas: Professor Schabas was named to NUI Galway's new professorship in human rights law in 1999 and is the Director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights, which was launched in 2000. He is an internationally-recognised scholar in the field of human rights. He publishes and lectures throughout the world on a wide range of human rights issues. His seminal publications include: The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997) and Genocide in International Law (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2000). His expertise is regularly solicited by international human rights non-governmental organisations, on whose behalf he has conducted missions in Africa, Asia and South America. He has quite specific expertise in the following areas: genocide, minority rights, humanitarian intervention, human rights during armed conflict, abolition of capital punishment, the right to a fair trial, the history of human rights.
Wednesday, 24 October 2001
Release date: 24 October, 2001 Major Exhibition of Seán Keating s Paintings comes to Galway A unique exhibition of the work of one of Ireland s most respected artists will be on view at the Aula Maxima, NUI Galway from Wednesday, 31 October to Monday, 5 November, 2001. Dr. Iognáid Ó Muircheartaigh, President of NUI, Galway will officially open the Exhibition on Tuesday 30th October 2001 at 7.00pm. The Exhibition in NUI, Galway is organised in association with the ESB and includes 18 paintings depicting the story of the development of Ardnacrusha. Fifteen of these paintings are provided from the ESB's own art collection. The painting The Key Men" was made available by kind permission of the Institute of Engineers of Ireland; "Night's Candles are Burnt Out" (1929), was made available by kind permission of the Oldham Art Gallery and Museum, UK; and "The Bunk House" was made available by the kind permission of a private collector. The work of Seán Keating RHA (1889-1977), spanned an exciting era of Ireland s history when the nation emerged from centuries of repression. Keating was awarded perhaps one of the most important commissions when he was allowed to record on canvas the construction of the Shannon Scheme including Ardnacrusha, the ESB Power Station on the Shannon. The portfolio of work created is staggering in impact and scope, providing a vibrant vision of the progress of the work itself, along with a clear insight to the minds of those responsible for completing the most significant transformation in the history of the Free State. Dr. Iognáid Ó Muircheartaigh, President of NUI, Galway said that the West of Ireland, Galway and the Aran Islands in particular, had a lasting influence on Keating throughout his life. "NUI Galway is, therefore, a very appropriate place to celebrate the artist's achievements by the staging of this wonderful Exhibition", he said. ESB Chief Executive, Ken O Hara said that the Keating paintings are among the most prized possessions in ESB s art collection. "Keating s paintings are not just drawings, sketches and paintings of a major project. They capture the spirit, ingenuity and perseverance of those responsible for making a major contribution to the transformation of our society. They reflect in essence the raison d etre of the ESB", he said. To mark the coming of the Keating Exhibition to Galway, a number of public lectures will take place in the Aula Maxima, Quadrangle, NUI, Galway. These include: Cumann Céimithe na Gaillimhe Christy Townley Biennial Lecture at 8.00 p.m., on Wednesday 31 October. The lecture, entitled "Rishworth, McLaughlin and the Shannon Scheme", will be delivered by Mr. Paul Duffy. Reminiscences of Seán Keating, by Dr. John Behan, RHA at 3.00 p.m. on Thursday, 1 November. Seán Keating, The Man I Knew, by Mr. Tom Kenny, at 8.00 p.m., on Monday, 5 November. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418
Wednesday, 24 October 2001
Release date: 24th October, 2001 Autumn Conferring Ceremonies at NUI, Galway Three days of Conferring ceremonies will take place in NUI Galway today (Wednesday), Thursday and Friday, the 24, 25, and 26 October. Almost 2,000 students from seven Faculties will be conferred with degrees and diplomas. The first students of NUI, Galway s Access Course will graduate this week. Students from two new undergraduate programmes, B.A. in Economics and Social Studies and B.A. in Public and Social Policy will also graduate at this week s conferring ceremonies. In addition, Honorary M.A. degrees will be conferred today on two people who have been associated with the University and have made an extraordinary contribution to the communities in which they live and work. Brother Colm O Connell, who has been working in Kenya for almost 30 years, has been responsible for coaching Kenyan athletes who have won World Championships and Olympic medals. For many years he was Principal of St. Patrick s School, a boarding school for boys in Kenya s Rift Valley, where he coached pupils to excel on the running track. His protegés have included world-class athletes, Peter Rono, Wilson Kipketer, Sally Barsosio and David Kiptoo. An honorary MA will also be conferred on Mr. Joe O Halloran, who for many years worked in NUI, Galway s James Hardiman Library. He edited The Galway Historical and Archaeological Journal for almost fifteen years. He also discovered (and arranged provision of copies for the James Hardiman Library), of a very large collection of manuscripts relating to Galway in the papers of Sir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson in St Andrew's University Library. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091-750418
Monday, 22 October 2001
Release date: 22 October, 2001 Companies woo Graduates at NUI, Galway Recruitment Fair The current down-turn in the global economy did not affect the attendance of some of this country s major employers at NUI Galway s annual Graduate Recruitment Fair. The Fair, which took place today (Monday, 22 October), attracted over 50 companies and was attended by more than 2,000 graduates. "The Fair is an ideal opportunity for graduates to meet prospective employers and find out about a wide range of employment possibilities", said Mr. Peter Keane, of NUI, Galway s Careers Service. "We have noticed a slight move away from the IT sector this year and broader representation from business and industry". Among the companies attending the fair were banks, management consulting companies, accountancy and technology companies and those representing the public sector. They included Deloitte and Touche, the Kerry Group, Smurfit Ireland, Intel, Boston Scientific and Siebel Systems. The Recruitment fair, the only one of its kind in the west of Ireland, was organised by the Careers Service at NUI, Galway. Each year the service produces several publications offering guidance and direction to graduates and postgraduates. As well as a fortnightly newsletter 'Career Matters', the Careers Service publishes a range of material providing graduates with information on interview techniques, employment opportunities and career planning. A survey carried out by the Careers Service earlier this year revealed that of those students who completed their studies last year, 61% are in employment; 18% are undertaking further academic studies; 5% are in teacher training; and just 1.2% are still seeking employment. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer. Tel. 091 750418
Tuesday, 9 October 2001
Release date: 8 October, 2001 Ireland s most powerful computer launched at NUI Galway Mr. Noel Treacy, T.D., Minister for Science and Technology launched a £1million Supercomputer facility in NUI, Galway today (Monday 8 October). The 40 processor Silicon Graphics (SGI) Origin 3800 Supercomputer, will perform computationally intensive calculations for the National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, which is based on the Galway campus. Its peak performance of 40 billion calculations per second makes it the most powerful computer in Ireland. The Supercomputer will help in the design of better medical instruments, the understanding of the chemical behaviour of drugs and carry out improved simulations of blood-flow and enhanced X-rays. Research in all of these areas are currently being carried out in NUI, Galway. The work is a good example of inter-disciplinary research involving scientists and engineers from a number disciplines in the University. Researchers at the National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science will use the high performance computer in a broad range of research projects in the area of biomechanics. These include the simulation of blood flow in the heart; heat flow and heat loss from patients during surgery; insertion of angioplasty catheters; and the deformation and remodelling of bone subject to physiological loads. Blood flow patterns through critical cardiovascular elements such as heart valves, coronary bypass grafts and surgical implants will be investigated and visualised using sophisticated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. CFD will be used to facilitate design improvements of novel biomedical engineering concepts for artificial heart components - mechanical pumps and valves. CFD will also be applied to pulmonary flows, to calculate the performance of artificial respirators and drug delivery systems. Astronomers from NUI, Galway have established an international reputation and have developed ways of improving X-ray images. These improved images will allow radiologists to identify illness earlier. In particular, researchers are studying how these improved images can be used to detect small fractures in bones. In the future these techniques can be used in basic science, medicine and industry. Possible applications include flaw detection in manufacturing processes and security cameras. All of these processes require substantial computing power, which will now be provided by the new supercomputer. Ends Information from: Máire Mhic Uidhir, Press Officer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 750418 Dr. Andrew Shearer, NUI, Galway. Tel. 091 524411, Ext. 3114